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[资料分享] 实用英语写作技巧

sgyanel   发表于 2008-1-19 00:10:53 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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第一单元 段落简介



1.1段落

段落是构成文章的一组句子。段落必须表达完整的意思:或描写事物(describe something),或争论某事(argue about something),或对某事提出疑问(question something),或要求什么(demand something),或给事物下定义(define something),或驳斥某观点(reject something)。

1.2典型段落的构成

一个典型的段落通常由三部分组成:(1)主题句(the topic sentence);(2)说明或支持主题的推展句( supporting sentences);(3)结论句(the concluding sentence)(有些段落没有该部分)。

示范段落1-1

We all know that cigarette smoking is a dangerous habit because it causes health problems. Doctors say it can be a direct cause of cancer of the lungs and throat and can also contribute to cancer of other organs. In addition, it can bring about other health problems such as heart and lung diseases. It is clearly identified as one of the chief causes of death in our society.

1.3示范段落分析

这是一个典型的段落,可概括提纲如下:

主题句: We all know that cigarette smoking is a dangerous habit,because it causes health problems.

推展句: 1. Doctors say it can be a direc cause of cancer of the lungs and throat and can also contribute to cancer of other organs.

2. It can bring about other health problems such as heart and lung diseases.

结论句: It is clearly identified as one of the chief causes of death in our society.

从以上提纲可见,主题句提出了一个问题: What kind of health problems does cigarette smoking cause?随后的两个推展句回答了这个问题,结论句总结了推展句并再一次强调主题句。

第二单元 主题句简介



2.1主题句

作者的首要任务是让读者知道所写段落要谈的是什么,这就是每段的主题句的作用。因此主题句应该阐明段落的主要思想,所有支持主题句的细节和描述都与这一主要思想有关。

2.2主题句的形式

主题句通常有以下三种形式:

1)肯定句(Affirmative Sentence)

Example: The need for wildlife protection is greater now than ever before.

2)反诘句(Rhetorical Sentence)

Example: How do you think people will solve the problem of wildlife protection?

3)不完整句(Fragments)

Example: And the workingman?

初学者最好使用肯定句作为主题句。

2.3主题句的位置

主题句出现的位置有以下四种情况:

1)段首(At the beginning)

主题句经常居于段首,以便读者浏览主题句就可掌握文章的概要。这个位置适用于写提供信息或解释观点的段落。

2)段末(At the end)

用推理方法展开段落时,主题句往往位于句末。

3)段中(In the middle)

有时为了使段落多样化,主题句也可以居于段中。

4)隐含(Implied)

有时候,尤其在写叙述性或描写性段落时,当所有的细节都围绕着一个显而易见的主题时可以不用主题句。


第三单元 如何写好主题句



3.1关于写主题句的建议

1)要写合乎语法的句子

Example 1: Two causes of the American Civil War.

这个句子是个不完整的句子,不合乎语法,因此不能用作主题句。

Example 2: There were two causes that led to the American Civil War.

重写后的句子合乎语法,是个较好的主题句。

2)要使用限写词限定主题

为了正确表达观点,好的主题句经常使用关键词或词组,即限制词(controllers)限制这一观点。

Example 3: Air travel is more convenient than train for at least three reasons.

从上例主题句我们得知作者将要写“air travel”( topic),他将要把 “train”( aspect)和“ air travel”作比较,并且陈述“reasons”。由此可见,作者在“aspect”(方面)和“reason”(原因)两方面限制他的主题。

3)要注意主题的可写性

所定的主题不能太笼统,也不能太具体。

Example 4: In Hemingway's story “Soldier’s Home”,Krebs tells his mother that he wants no part of God's Kingdom.

这个句子太具体以至于无东西可写,无法展开段落。

Example 5: In Hemingway's story “Soldier’s Home”, Kreb is a lonely, cynical veteran.

这个句子可作为主题句,因为可以围绕“lonely,cynical”展开段落。

Example 6: Let me tell you something about overpopulation.

这个句子太笼统,作为一个段落的主题太大,难于驾驭。

Example 7: Why has the world population been increasing sorapidly in the last decades?

这个句子是个较好的主题句,作者用“the reasons for overpopulation in the last decades”,从“原因”(cause)和“时间”(time)两方面限制了主题,能在一个段落内论述。


第四单元 如何写推展句



4.1段落的推展

在前几单元中,我们谈到写段落的第一个步骤是写主题句。作者要对主题句在某些方面加以限制。第二个步骤将是写推展句。例如你要陈述你选择某院校的理由,第一步,写出主题句:

There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year.

第二步,以数个理由推展你的主题:

示范段落4-1

① There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year.② First of all, there is the question of money:Bingstonv's tuition is reasonable and I don’t even have to pay it all at once.③ This is very important, since my father is not a rich man.④ With Bingston's “deferred payment plan,” my father will be able to pay my tuition without too much difficulty.⑤The second resaon is the fine education which I feed will receive there in agriculture, my chosen field.⑥ It is a well-known fact that Bingston hires only the finest professors in its Agriculture Department.⑦ Moreover, the university reqires all agricultural students to get practical experience by working on farms in the areawhile they are still going to school.

4.2示范段落分析

细节: two main reasons:

理由 1—financial consideration②

a. reasonable tuition③

b. deferred payment plan④

理由 2—quality of education⑤

a. fine teachers③

b. practical experience⑦

在两个主要理由之下,作者用更小的细节支持它们。

由此可见,段落的推展依赖于支持主题句的细节(details)。推展段落的方法很多。通常每个段落以一种方法为“支配方法”( the dominant method),必要时,可运用其它一种或数种方法作为“辅助方法”( the supporting method)。上面的示范段落使用因果法(cause-and-effect)作为支配方法,分类法(division and classification)作为辅助方法。作者还运用了“重要性排列顺序”(the order of importance)作为安排细节、组织段落的手段。我们将在以下各单元逐个讨论这些方法。


第五单元如何写结论句



5.1结论句

第一单元曾提到,段落由三个部分组成,最后一部分就是结论句( the concluding sentence)。结论句通常与主题句一样包含有段落的中心思想,然而所用措辞与主题句不同。

在示范段落 1-1,主题句是: We all know that cigarette smoking is a dangerous habit because it causes health problems.

结论句是: It is clearly identified as one of the chief causes of death in our society.

5.2关于写结论句的建议

1)把握主题句的关键词

例如在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落 1-1中,中心思想是“the health problems caused by cigarette smoking,关键词是“health problems”。

2)总结细节,回答主题句中隐含的问题。

在上述示范段落中,隐含的问题是“What are the health problems caused by cigarette smoking?”结论句作出的回答是 It is identified as one of the chief cause of death in our society.

3)用不同的措辞表达同一中心思想。

在上述段落中,主题句的关键词是“health problems”,而在结论句中,关键词是“causes of death”。

示范段落5-1

Our neighborhood has been greatly changed. When I last visited there, about half the homes had been torn down to make way for a superhighway. The remaining buildings were plastered with billboards and surrounded by traffic signs and litter. Now the whole neighborhood has become dirty, noisy and full of cars.

5.3示范段落分析

主题句: Our neighborhood has been changed.

主题句关键词: changed

主题句隐含的问题:“How has the neighborhood changed?

细节: 1. a superhighway built—noisy and full of cars

2. full of billboards, traffic signs and litter—dirty

结论句: Now the whole neighborhood has become dirty, noisy andfull of cars.

结论句关键词: dirty,noisy and full of cars

结论句总结了细节并回答了主题句提出的问题。

第六单元 如何写好一个段落(Ⅰ)



6.1段落的特征

一个好的段落应该具有以下三个特征:1)完整性(completeness); 2)统一性(unity); 3)连贯性(coherence)。

6.2完整性

段落的完整性指的是段落得以充分展开。作者一俟写好主题句,就应该用细节进行推展,细节越充足越好。例如,你认为“Riding motorcycles is dangerous”,你就应该用你所知道的事实证明这一观点是正确的。你可以使用数字(statistics),列举例子(example),进行描绘(descriptions)等等。

示范段落6-1

Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama has played an important role in man's lives. The Greek tragedies and come dies were a central part of the citizens' lives in ancient Greece. During the Middle Ages, Bible stories were acted out in churches,and wandering companies of players performed in the streets. In modern times, drama is brought directly into people's homes through the magic of television.

6.3示范段落分析

主题句: Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama has played animportant role in man's lives.

细节:1. ancient Greece

2. the Middle Ages

3. modern times

作者根据各个不同历史时期提供细节,举例说明戏剧的重要性。

6.4 统一性

一个好的段落应该具有统一性。统一性就是一个中心思想统领整个段落。每个细节都应支持主题句,不应有无关的细节。为了支持主题,要尽可能多地提供细节,但又要避免滥用细节。

读下面段落,然后找出毛病。

① Innovations, whether practical or aesthetic, are often resisted by the general population.② When the early experiments in the field of aviation began their work, there were many who said,“If God had wanted man to fly, he would have given him wings.③The Wright brothers made the first powered flights in a heavier-than-air craft in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.④Even today there are many who strongly object to modern art and music as being nothing more than “splashes of paint and honking horns.”⑤The painter Picasso's well-known masterpiece “The Three Musicians” is done primarily in blues and browns.

6.5段落分析

主题句: Innovations, whether practical or aesthetic, are often resisted by the general population.

推展细节:1. People's objection to the early experiments in the field of aviation.

2. People's objection to modern art and music.

无关细节:1. The Wright brothers' experiment in flight.


第七单元  如何写好一个段落(Ⅱ)

  

7.1连贯性

段落的连贯性指的是段落的句子以清晰、符合逻辑的顺序(clear, logical sequence)连接。连贯性使读者能够找出每个观点之间的联系以及这些观点与主题句的联系。

7.2关于如何取得连贯性的建议

1)使用同一时态

如果随意而毫无理由地改变时态(tenses),那么不管作者连句的技巧多么高超,段落也不可能取得连贯性。在写作时,可以使用现在时( present tense)或过去时(past tense)。选用哪一种取决于作者处理材料的方式。

2)使用某种逻辑顺序

常用的逻辑顺序有: 1)时间顺序(time order); 2)空间顺序(space order)(见第12单元); 3)重要性顺序(order of importance)和 4)熟悉度顺序(order of familiarity)(见第 19单元)。

3)使用连接成分

使用某些连接词和短语(connective word Sand phrases),重复某些关键词(repetition of certain key words),可以大大增加段落的连贯性。某些连接词、短语和关键词可以起粘着物(adhesives)的作用,把各部分连接起来,使句子间的关系更加清楚。连接成分主要有以下三种:

a.连接词语(linking expressions)(见第34单元)

b.代词(pronouns)

代词用于提醒读者注意其先行词,以此把有关的部分连接起来。

c.重复关键词语(repetition of key words)

示范段落7.1

① Until recently daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time.② Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties.③ But now some people are taking a fresh look at daydreaming.④ And it may be that more people are suffering from a lack of daydreaming than are suffering from too much of it.

7.3示范段落分析

顺序:熟悉度和对比关系

连接词语:①“until recently”②“or”③“but”④“and”⑤“then”

代词:① daydreaming—②it—④ it(the second one)

重复关键词:①daydreaming—③daydreaming

④daydreaming

Exercise 7-1

Directions: Arrange the following sentences into a paragraph,using the coherence devices as the hints.

① Clearly, in agriculture and industry, the progress of a country depends on the busy hands of its working people.

② Finally, the establishment of efficient transportation and communication systems, essential services in a modernizing economy, relies heavily on a lab our force of expert craftsmen who take pride in their manual skills.

③ And of course the manufactures as well as the maintenance of machines of all kinds demands a large number of trained mechanics and technicians.

④ To begin with, ploughing fields,planting and harvesting crops, and raising livestock are all important to development and all require people who work with their hands.

⑤ Secondly, mining natural resources, building roads and bridges, and constructing dams for irrigation and electrical power are also important to development and also require people who know how to use their hands skillfully.

⑥ Manual lab our is one of the principal development resources in any industralizing country, as the following examples demonstrate.

Topic Sentence:____________

Details:___________________

Concluding Sentence:____________

八单元 推展段落方法之一——事实与数据法

  

在第四单元,我们曾提到推展段落的方法有多种。从这一单元开始,我们将逐个介绍这些方法。

8.1事实与数据法

事实(a fact)是可以客观证实的事情。例如:“The sunrises in the east.”是个事实。“Oil and water do not mix.”也是个事实。两者都可以通过实验证明是真实的。但是“Eating carrots improves eyesight.”也许是真实也许是不真实的。这不是个事实,是一种看法(opinion)。数据(a statistic)是一个数字事实(a numeral fact),用于给某一主题提供有意义的信息。例如:

There are twenty-five students in the class.”是一个数据。

示范段落8-1

The term population explosion is usually applied to the rapid growth of population over the last three centuries.In the two hundred years from 1650 to 1850,world population doubled and reached its first billion.In the next eighty years,it doubled again,and by 1975,it had doubled once more to a total of 4 billion.By the year 2000,it is estimated that it will exceed 6 billion and possibly approach 7 billion unless there is a major reduction in birth rates or amajor increase in death rates.

8.2示范段落分析

主题句:The term population explosion is usually applied to the rapid growth of population over the last three centuries.

提供信息:

数据1:1650-1850;double,reach 1 billion

数据2:1850-1930;double again,reach 2 billion

数据3:1930-1975;double again,reach 4 billion

数据4:1975-2000;exceed 6 billion,approach 7 billion

示范段落8-2

A snake is a strange animal.It walks on its ribs and it smells with its tongue.Since its teeth are sharp like needles and not good for chewing,it swallows its food whole.

8.3示范段落分析

主题句:A snake is a strange animal.

事实1:walks with its ribs and smells with its tongue

事实2:swallows its food whole

8.4关于如何写事实与数据段落的建议

1)不要把事实与看法混为一谈

事实是真实的,因为它们已被证据证实。然而看法只是人们的主观想法,不一定真实。因此,记住用事实而不是用看法支持你的观点。

2)不要使用不相关的数据

如果你为了增加观点的可信度而使用不相关的数据,即使这些数据是真实的,也会引起误解。

第九单元 推展段落方法之二——叙述法

  

9.1叙述法

叙述法(narration)回答了“发生了什么”(what happened)这一问题。叙述经常用于讲述一系列事件。这种方法常用作小说(fiction)、传记(biographs)的支配方法,也可用作其他各种文体的辅助方法。例如,轶事(anecdotes)、寓言(fables)等都是用叙述形式阐述某一观点。

示范段落9-1

I was seven years old when I first became aware of the terrible power of guilt.For piling our toys into the toy box,Mother had rewarded my brother and me with five shiny pennies each.If I had ten pennies instead of just five,I could have bought a ginger bread man with raisin eyes and sugar-frosted hair.The image danced in my head all day,until,finally,I crept into my brother's room and stole his five pennies.The next morning,as my brother and I were dressing to go to school,I had all ten pennies in the pocket of my coat,cramming one of my father's handkerchiefs on top of them.As my brother and I lined up in front of Mother to be kissed goodbye,she looked at my bulging pocket with amazement.“What on earth do you have in your pocket?she asked.“It's nothing,”I said,as offhandedly as I could.“It's nothing at all.”Bewildered,but toobusy to investigate any further,Mother kissed me goodbye I ran out the door and down our gravel path as fast as my feet could carry me.But the farther from home I got,the more miserable I became.The shiny pennies in my pocket felt oppressively like one-ton boulders.And I was haunted by the idea that I had become a thief.Forgotten was the gingerbread man,for whose sake I had stolen my brother's pennies Finally,unable to bear my horrible feeling of guilt,I ran back home to blurt out my crime to my mother.

9.2示范段落分析

在上面段落中,作者在主题句中阐述了他的观点:I was seven years old when I first became aware of the terrible power of guilt.然后用一件轶事作为支持这一观点的细节,叙述发生了什么事,并说明了他的观点。

9.3关于如何写叙述段落的建议

1)只着重叙述有意义的事件和经历

尽量避免日常琐事和无聊事,只使用那些有助于阐明你的观点的事件和经历。

2)保持始终如一的着眼点

不管叙述是以第一人称或第三人称进行,都要尽量使语言从叙述者的着眼点(point of view)反映叙述者的见解和意向。

3)运用细节

写叙述段落时要运用细节,使人物栩栩如生,并在读者的想象中唤起事件发生的那种环境气氛。在描绘人物时也使用细节,使人物血肉丰满,形象生动。

4)使用时间顺序

叙述几乎总是使用时间顺序法来组织细节。(第12单元将讨论时间顺序法)

Exercise 9-1

Directions:Write a paragraph of narration using the given topic sentence.

Not knowing a language well can sometimes be embarrassing.

第十单元 推展段落方法之三——描述法

  

10.1描述法

叙述讲述发生了什么事情,描述(description)则向读者描绘某事物的样子、声音、味道等等。作者可以通过外表、行动或变化用语言描绘一个人,一个物体,一个地方或一个场面。

示范段落10-1

A tsunami is a great wave or series of waves.It extends from the surface to the sea floor and moves the entire vertical section of ocean through which it speeds.The greater the ocean depth,the faster the tsunami travels.Speeds of up to 600 mph have been reached.Toward land it slows down as the bottom of the wave drags on the seabed;its crest rises from fifty to a hundred feet or more.

10.2示范段落分析

主题句:A tsunami is a great wave or series of waves.

细节1:extention

细节2:speed(statistics used)

细节3:height(statistics used)

在上面段落中,作者用细节(包括数据)描述了海啸的宽度(extention)、速度(speed)和高度(height),从而告诉读者海啸是什么样子。

示范段落10-2

The kitchen was in a mess.Along the left wall were the counter and sink covered with dirty dishes and garbage.On the far wall the washing machine groaned under a load of filthy clothes.Right next to the door where I was standing,on my right,I saw at able cluttered with old newspapers,an overturned catsup bottle,and a wet,half-eaten hot dog.At the far end of the right wall the refrigerator stood with the door ajar and milk dripping down from the top shelf.It was the messiest kitchen I had ever seen.

10.3示范段落分析

主题句:The kitchen was in a mess.

细节1:Along the left wall—counter and sink

细节2:On the far wall—washing machine

细节3:Right next to the door,on my right—table

细节4:At the far end of the right wall—refrigerator

结论句:It was the messiest kitchen I had ever seen.

10.4关于如何写描述段落的建议

1)主题句给读者一个深刻的印象

写一段好的描述段落要注意两个方面:首先给读者一个深刻的印象(a dominant impression),然后运用充分的细节(aptdetails)。这种深刻的印象必须首先吸引读者,因此不要在主题句中用太琐碎的东西冲淡这一印象。

比较下面两个主题句:

a.The kitchen is in a mess.

b.The kitchen is a place where the hostess does almost all the housework and as a consequence it is not always attractive and neat.

显然,前一句主题句比后一句更吸引读者,因为它能给人以更深刻的印象。

2)提供充足的细节

具体和生动的细节是成功的描述所不可缺少的。在示范段落10-1中,作者通过海啸外表的生动细节以及速度和高度的具体数据描述海啸。在示范段落10-2中,在主题句后,作者提供细节描绘厨房是怎样的乱七八糟。记住不要提供无用的细节使读者失望。

3)使用空间顺序法(space order)组织段落

好的描述还在于把一大堆具体的细节按空间顺序组成一个整体(关于空间顺序法见第12单元)。在示范段落10-1,作者按照从表面到海底,从远到近的顺序描绘。在示范段落10-2中,作者按照从左到右,从近到远的顺序描绘。

4)使用有新意的明喻和暗喻

明喻(Similes)和暗喻(metaphors)可使描述更加生动。但要尽量避免使用已经用得太滥的比喻。


第十一单元 推展段落方法之四

——过程分析法

  

11.1过程分析法

过程分析法(process analysis)用作支配方法时,其目的是告诉读者怎样做某事,说明某事物的工作原理或某事物的制造方法。

示范段落11-1

Even if you don't know how to cook,you'll never starve to death if you know how to prepare scrambled eggs.You begin by melting one tablespoon of butter in a frying pan over low heat.While the butter is melting,break three eggs into a bowl.Add 1/4teaspoon of salt,1/4 teaspoon of paprika,and three tablespoons of milk to the eggs in the bowl and mix them for about a minute.Pour the mixture into the frying pan,break them into shreds with a fork,or stir them with a spoon until they become solid.When they are cooked,serve them with lightly buttered toast.

11.2示范段落分析

主题句:Even if you don't know how to cook,you'll never starve to death if you know how to prepare scrambled eggs.

步骤1:melt butter

步骤2:break eggs

步骤3:add salt,paprika and milk to the eggs

步骤4:mix them

步骤5:pour into the frying pan and stir them

步骤6:serve with buttered toast

11.3关于如何写过程分析段落的建议

1)按照事物发展过程的顺序解释过程

过程分析通常使用时间顺序法组织段落,因为告诉别人怎样做某件事的最容易的方法是一步一步地分析。

2)提及必要的用具、成分的分量和时机,在适当的地方提醒读者注意容易做错的地方。

3)使用列举符号表示步骤。

下面的列举符号(listing signals)常用于过程描述:

first,second,third,etc.

to begin with,then,finally,etc.

Exercise 11-1

Directions:Read the following paragraph,then find out the topic sentence,the listing signals and analyze the steps of the process.

In his will,Alfred Nobel left specific instructions as to how the winners of the science awards he endowed are to be selected.First,each year the Swedish Academy of Sciences(physics and chemistry)and the Caroline Medical Institute(physiology and medicine)solicit nearly two thousand recommendations from past laureates,university professors and other experts from all over the world.The second step is the review of recommendations received and the selections of preliminary candidates by special committees within the two Swedish institutions.The committee members are specifically instructed that those chosen “shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind,”and that no considerations be given to the candidates' nationalities.Next,after lengthy investigation and discussion,the final choices are made for each discipline.Finally,telegrams informing them of their awards are sent to the new Nobel laureates about one month prior to the award ceremony.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

Listing Signals:_____________________________________________

Steps: 1.______________________________________________

2.______________________________________________

3.______________________________________________

4.______________________________________________


第十二单元 组织段落方法——时间顺序法和空间顺序法

  

组织段落的常见方法有:1)时间顺序;2)空间顺序;3)重要性顺序和;4)熟悉度顺序。在前几单元,我们曾提到写叙述段落和过程分析时用时间顺序,写描述段落时用空间顺序。在这一单元里,我们将着重讨论这两种组织方法。另两种方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序——将在第19单元讨论。

12.1时间顺序法

段落内组织细节的最简单最常见的方法是时间顺序法(time order organization)。时间顺序通常用于叙述和过程分析——先发生什么,然后怎样,再然后怎样,等等。正如我们在示范段落9-1和示范段落11-1所看到的一样。其实在你的生活中你经常运用这种方法。你也许曾经告诉你父母在学校里发生的事情。你也许向老师或同学叙述过你是怎样做一个实验的。这些用的都是时间顺序。

12.2关于如何写时间顺序段落的建议

1)写下你要记录的事件或步骤,然后按照时间顺序排列

2)确定你的写作目的,然后写出带有中心思想的主题句

3)从你列举的事件或步骤中删除与中心思想无关的细节

4)使用“first,then,the next step”等等列举符号把细节连接起来

12.3空间顺序法

段落组织的另一方法是空间顺序法(space order organization)。空间顺序主要用于描述,正如我们在示范段落10-1和示范段落10-2所看到的。空间顺序和时间顺序一样,是生活中经常使用的方法。你也许曾在信中向你父母描述你的学院,或向你的同学描述一个风景区。

12.4关于如何写空间顺序段落的建议

按照你想让你的读者了解你要描绘的场面的方式移动——例如,从左到右,或从背景到前景,或按顺时针方向,等等。

12.5综合运用空间顺序和时间顺序

有时候,尤其在描写参观时,有必要同时运用空间顺序和时间顺序,以增强段落的统一性。

示范段落12-1

We enjoyed our visit to Dr Hassan's house,perched high up on a hill.Walking up the long driveway,we approached the huge bronze door.A butler was standing in the open doorway,ushering guests into the house.Going in,we passed the oak-pannelled library and the formal dining room before we arrived at the ballroom,where the reception was being held.Under three sparkling chandeliers,more than a hundred people were enjoying champagne,hors d'oeuvres and good conversation.

12.6示范段落分析

主题句:We enjoyed our visit to Dr Hassan's house.

时间空间顺序:driveway→door→house→library→diningroom→ballroom

Exercise 12-1

Directions:Arrange the sentences into a paragraph,using the time order and adding the necessary listing signals.

—She never had a birthday party and she was twenty-one year sold.

—The party was really a successful one.

—We planned to serve fruit punch and coffee.

—We planned entertainment.

—We carefully made a guest list.

—We planned a surprise party for Mary recently.

—We included many of her friends from school,a few of her friends from her neighbourhood,and all of her brothers and sisters.

—A boy did mayic tricks skillfully;another boy played the guitar well.

—We also wanted chicken sandwiches,a birthday cake with twenty-one candles,and ice cream.

—We especially enjoyed the group singing.


第十三单元 推展段落方法之五——举例法

  

13.1举例法

举例法(examples)也是推展主题的主要方法。举例法有两种形式,一种是首先陈述自己的观点,然后举出一个或多个例子阐明观点;另一种是先举一个很长的例子,然后转入例子所要阐明的观点。

读下面段落:

Courage is the willingness to take a risk when the outcome is uncertain,and when the risk taken may involve harm,loss,or danger to the one taking it.The courageous person fears no one and nothing.He or she is undaunted by danger or peril.He or she will venture boldly into an uncertain situation,hardly giving a thought to the harm or consequences which may result to his or her person.

以上段落的缺点是乏味、含糊,不能向读者表达作者关于“courage”的看法。请看下面重写后的段落。

示范段落13-1

Courage is the willingness to take a risk when the outcome is uncertain,and when the risk taken may involve harm,loss,or danger to the one taking it.For example,in a Los Angeles suburb,a twelve-year-old girl ran into a burning house to rescue her baby brother,pulled him unconscious out of the burning bedroom,and dragged him down the stairs and outside to safety.This was arousing display of courage.The girl had been safe outside the flaming house when she remembered her sleeping brother.Disregarding her personal safety,she plunged into the flaming house to save him.

13.2示范段落分析

较之上一段落,这个段落更能清晰地传达作者关于“courage”的观点。首先,作者概述什么是“courage”,然后举出一个女孩子从燃烧着的房子中把弟弟救出来的例子阐明这一观点。

13.2关于写举例法段落的建议

1)选择恰当的例子

所选的例子应该能够恰当地支持自己的观点。

2)要表明你的例子所要阐明的观点

大多数作者使用“for example”等短语引出例子。其它常用的短语有:“as an example”,“to illustrate”,“for instance”,“an illustration of it”,“a case in point”(见第34单元)。

3)不要滥用例子

Exercise 13-1

Directions:Read the following paragraph,point out the topic sentence,and find out what example the writer uses to illustrate his point.

Despite her wealth,Madame Rubinstein had a mania for saving money.French President Georges Pompidou once rented a Paris apartment from her.She noticed that he left the building at exactlly8:50 every morning.Madame began ordering her daily taxi for 8:45 so that she could save on cab fare by following Pompidou's motorcycle escort through the heavy Paris traffic.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

Example:__________________________________________________


第十四单元 推展段落方法之六

——比较与对比法

  

14.1比较与对比法

有时为了说明某一事物,需要与其他事物联系起来才能阐述清楚,这就是对比或比较(comparison or contrast)。比较方法和对比方法基本一致,不同的是比较强调两事物如何相同,对比强调两事物如何不同。

示范段落14-1

Life in the city is quite different from life in the suburbs.People living in the city are constantly exposed to the hustle and bustle of urban life.But life in the suburbs is generally quiet and casual and generally more low-key than in the city.If city dwellers want to see trees and grass,they must go to one of the public parks.On the other hand,the streets of many suburban communities are lined with trees and shrubs,and each house has its own grassy yard.A person living in the city is close to many sources of entertainment,but people living in suburan areas must go into the city for entertainment.

示范段落14-2

The llama is a member of the camel family.Like the camel,the llama can live for weeks without a drink of water.Both get enough moisture from the grass,shrubs,and other plants they eat.But unlike the camel,the llama has no hump on its back.

14.2示范段落分析

示范段落14-1所用的支配方法是对比。作者对比城市生活与城郊生活。而示范段落14-2同时运用了比较和对比方法,既描绘了无峰驼和骆驼的共同点,也描绘了不同点。

14.3关于如何写比较或对比段落的建议

1)弄清比较或对比的基点

在写比较或对比时,第一步是确定比较/对比的基点。在示范段落14-1中,作者把对比基于生活步调、视野和娱乐上。在示范段落14-2中,作者把比较和对比基于无峰驼和骆驼的特性和外表上。

2)用逐事比较或逐点比较的方法组织比较或对比段落一旦确定了比较/对比基点,作者就可以用以下两种方式之一推展段落:逐事比较(item-by-item)或逐点比较(point-by-point)。

逐事比较重点放在被比较和对比的特定事物上,先叙述A事物,再叙述B事物。逐点比较重点放在两事物中每个事物的各个特征上,先叙述每个事物某一特征,再叙述每个事物的另一特征。如下面比较“a motor-cycle”和“a car”的异同的大纲所示:

Item-by-Item

Ⅰ.Motorcycle A.Expense B.Upkeep C.Safety

Ⅱ.Automobile A.Expense B.Upkeep C.Safety



Point-by-Point

Ⅰ.Expense A.Motorcycle B.Autormobile

Ⅱ.Upkeep A.Motorcycle B.Autormobile

Ⅲ.Safety A.Motorcycle B.Autormobile

3)运用连接词语保持连贯(连接词语见第34单元)

Exercise 14-1

Directions:Write a paragraph using a point-by-point comparison/contrast about the advantages of bikes over cars or

buses.The outline and the topic sentence are given.

Outline:Ⅰ.Expense A.Cars or buses B.Bikes

Ⅱ.Convenience A.Cars or buses B.Bikes

Ⅲ.Pollution A.Cars or buses B.Bikes

As compared with cars or buses,bicycles have unique advantages for Chinese people.


第十五单元 推展段落方法之七——下定义法

  

15.1下定义法

下定义(definition)就是解释某事物是什么,不是什么。写下定义段落时,通常把概念或要下定义的事物置于一个大的类别中,然后解释该事物与同一类别的其它事物有何不同。下定义法多用作推展段落的辅助方法。

示范段落15-1

A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper.It is of cylindrical shape and can be held between the first two fingers of the hand.It is about 6 inches long and 1/4 inch wide.At the end there is usually an eraser attached to the pencil by a surrounding metal band.Lead is the material which is used in making the marks on the paper,and a sharpener is needed to keep the pencil in good working order.Pencils are made of various kinds of wood.

15.2示范段落分析

主题句:A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper.细节:shape,material

15.3关于如何写下定义段落

1)以正式的定义开始

一个正式的定义段落通常把要定义的术语置于一个概类中,然后指出该术语与其它同类别事物有什么不同。在示范段落15-1中,要定义的术语是“pencil”,属于概类“instrument”。

2)用描述、举例或比较对比方法扩充定义

在正式的定义之后,必须更详细地解释该术语的意思,在示范段落15-1中用的是描述法,在示范段落13-1中,扩充“courage”概念用的是举例法。比较对比法也可以用于扩充定义,对比法陈述该事物不是什么,比较法陈述该事物象什么。

Exercise 15-1

Directions:Read the following paragraph,point out the topic sentence and find out what method(s)are used to expand the defintion.

Chemistry is that branch of science which has the task of investigating the materials out of which the universe is made.It is not concerned with the forms into which they may be fashioned.Such objects as chairs,tables,vases,bottles,or wires are of no significance in chemistry;but such substances as glass,wool,iron,sulfur,and clay,as the materials out of which they are made,are what it studies.Chemistry is concerned not only with the composition of such substances,but also with their inner structure.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

Method(s) used:_______________________________________

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第十六单元 推展段落方法之八——分类法

  

16.1分类法

分类法(division and classification)是把一事物拆成几部分,表明这些部分与整体的关系。通常,作者以总类开头,然后把总类拆开,——列举部分或全部分类。

示范段落16-1

There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library.First,there are books on all subjects,both in English and in many other languages.These books are organized according to subject,title,and author in a central filing system called card catalog.Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks.Second,there are reference materials,which include encyclopedias,dictionaries,bibliographies,atlases,etc.and which generally must be used in the library itself.Third,there are periodicals—magazines,news-papers,pamphlets—which are filed alphbetically in racks or which have been micro-filmed to conserve space.Like reference works,periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library.

16.2示范段落分析

主题句:There are three basic kinds of materials that can be foundin any good library.

分类词(Classifier):kinds

列举词(Listing Signals):first,second,third

分类(Categories):1.books on all subjects

2.reference materials

3.periodicals

16.2关于如何写分类段落的建议

1)依据一个原则分类

把一事物分类后,要自始至终遵循同一分类原则。在示范段落16-1,分类原则是“the kinds of materials”。

2)所分类别必须互不包容

在示范段落16-1中,属于第一类的“books on all subjects”与属于第二类的“reference materials”界线分明.反之亦然。

3)分类必须完整

如果所分类别不完整,所作的分类则徒劳无益。如上例,所分三种“materials”应包括“all materials in a library”。

4)运用熟悉度方法排列

作者经常根据该读者对所分类别的熟悉程度排列顺序。通常先讨论读者最熟悉的,然后逐步讨论不熟悉的(关于熟悉度法见第19单元)。

5)使用分类词和列举符号

有经验的作者经常使用类词介绍概类,然后使用列举符号表明概类中的各分类。在示范段落16-1中,类词是“kind”,列举符号是“first,second,third”,下面是经常使用的类词:

kind,type,group,thought,way,class,part,element,factor,aspect,division,characteristic,subdivision,reasons,category,等等。

Exercise 16-1

Directions:Read the following paragraph,find out the topic sentence,the classifier,and the categories.

There are three fundamental human body types—endomorphic,mesomorphic,and ectomorphic.The extreme endomorph combines heavy fat distribution and lack of bony angularity with around face,short neck,wide hips,and heavy limbs.The extreme mesomorph has a solid chest,slender waist,long torso,and relatively short,powerful arms and legs.Extreme ectomorphs are characterized by their slender bodies,short trunks,long arms and legs,long narrow hands and feet,and lack of fat.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

Classifier:_____________

Categories:________________________________________________


第十七单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅰ)

  

17.1因果法

因果法(cause and effect)段落通常回答“why?”的问题。大多数人认为在自己或别人生活中发生的事情必然事出有因,因此总要知道为什么会发生这样或那样的事情。原因(cause)指的是导致结果的发生在过去的事情,结果(effect)指的是已发生的事情将会产生的后果。

17.2结果法

解释一个原因(cause)的几个结果(effects)的段落,可能以下面两种顺序之一出现:或者以原因开头,接着指出一个一个结果,如下面示范段落17-1所示;或首先摆出结果,然后指出原因。

示范段落17-1

Many people are worried about what television has done to the generation of American children who have grown up watching it.For one thing,recent studies tend to show that TV stifles creative imagination.Some teachers feel that television has taken away the child's ability to form mental pictures in his own mind,resulting in children who cannot understand a simple story without visualillustrations.Secondly,too much TV too early tends to cause children to withdraw from real life experiences.Thus,they grow up to be passive spectators who can only respond to action,but not initiate it.The third area for concern is the serious complaint frequently made by elementary school teachers that children exhibit a low tolerance for the frustrations of learning.Because they have been conditioned to see all problems resolved in 30 or 60 minutes on TV,they are quickly discouraged by any activity that promises less than instant gratification.But perhaps the most serious result is the impact of television violence on children,who have come to regard it as an everyday thing.Not only does this increase their tolerance of violent behavior in others,but most authorities now concede that under certain conditions,some children will imitate anti- social acts that they witness on television.

17.3示范段落分析

主题句:Many people are worried about what television has done to the generation of American children who have grown up watching it.

因果模式(cause and effect pattern):

原因(cause):television

结果(effects):1.TV stifles creative imagination.

2.TV causes children to withdraw from real life experiences.

3.Children exhibit a low tolerance for the frustrations of learning.

4.Children have come to regard violence as an everyday thing.

17.4关于如何写因果法段落的建议

1)段落一开始就表明目的

在段落一开始就陈述你所关心的原因或结果是什么。例如,在示范段落17-1,主题句就把目的限定为分析“the effects of television on American children”。

2)选择主题要适中

选择太大的主题会给你带来麻烦。因此,记住要选择你可以驾驭的主题。例如:“effects of television”作为主题会太大,难以下笔。然而把它限制为“effects on American children”就容易多了(第18单元继续讨论因果法)。

第十八单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅱ)

  

18.1原因法

有时,一个结果会源于几个原因。同样,段落可或以结果开头或以结果结束,作者可以从熟悉到不熟悉的原因逐一分析,或是从分析一个又一个读者不熟悉的原因开头,最后引出读者熟悉的结果。选用哪一种,决定于作者认为哪一种更有说服力。

示范段落18-1

Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities.Foremost is,that air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts.Meanwhile,rural areas have been built up,leaving many animals on the edges of suburbs.In addition,urban wildlife refuges have been created.The Greater London Council last year spent $750,000 to buy land and build 10 permanent wildlife refuges in the city.As a result,many big birds are now living in the city.For peregrine falcons cities are actully safer than rural cliff dwellings.By 1970 the birds had died out east of the Mississippi because DDT had made their eggs too thin to support life.That year,scientist Tom Cade of Cornell University began raising the birds for release in cities,for cities afforded plentyof food.

18.2 示范段落分析

主题句:Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities.

因果模式(Cause-effect Pattern):

结果(Effect):wild animals back to the cities

原因(Causes): 1.Air and water quality have improved.

2.Rural areas have been built up.

3.Urban wildlife refuges have been created.

18.3 因—果—因法

有时候,一个原因也许会引起一个结果,这个结果又成为另一个结果的原因,如示范段落18-2所示。

示范段落18-2

For some time now,medical scientists have noted an alarming increase in disease of the heart and circulation among people who smoke cigarettes.It has been found that the presence of nicotine in the blood stream causes blood vessels to contract,thus slowing circulation,which eventully leads to hardening of the arteries.As the arteries stiffen,less blood reaches the brain,and the end result of this slowdown is the cerebral hemorrhage,commonly referred to as a“stroke”.In addition,nicotine in the bloodstream reduces the ability of the hemoglobin to release oxygen,resulting in shortness of breath.The lack of oxygen forces the heart to beat faster—that is,the pulse rate increases—and in turn accelerates the risk of heart attack.

18.4.示范段落分析

因-果-因模式(Cause-Effect-Cause Pattern):

Smoking tobacco→nicotine in the blood streams

→the blood vessels constract…

18.5 关于写因果段落的建议(续)

3)着重分析直接的、明显的原因

每个结果都有无数的原因,同样,每个行为都会导致无数的结果。因果段落应只着重分析直接的、明显的原因,忽略间接的原因。例如,一个学生成绩不好,直接原因是没有认真学习,间接原因也许是对学校不满。显然,我们应该着眼于直接的原因而摒弃间接的原因。

4)根据重要性或熟悉程度排列细节(见第19单元)

5)使用适当的排列符号(listing signals)(见第34单元)

Exercise 18-1

Directions:Read the following paragraph of cause and effect,adding suitable listing signals and linking expressions.

There are many reasons why languages change.____,

various languages that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolated,independent communities.________is the independence of and interaction with foreign cultures,often as a result of military conquest.________is rapidly expanding technologe and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into close contact,with borrowing between languages a common phenomenon in the contemporary world.All languages change as the experiences of their speakers change.



第十九单元 组织段落方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序

  

19.1 重要性顺序排列法

前面我们已经讨论了组织段落的两种方法——时间顺序法(time-order)和空间顺序法(space-order)。组织段落的第三种方法是根据重要性排列的方法(to organize details according to their order of importance)。作者使用这种方法的依据是他认为所选用的细节应如何加以强调。

使用重要性顺序法,可选用上升顺序(ascending order),或下降顺序(aescending oraer)。前者先列举次要观点,把重要的留到最末(如示范段落17-1),后者先强调最重要的观点,然后列举次要观点(如示范段落4-1)。

19.2 熟悉度顺序排列法

对于某些段落,也许使用熟悉度顺序法(order of familiarity)更恰当。这种方法根据读者对作者所选用的一系列细节的熟悉程度排列。例如,在分类段落中,作者经常先谈论读者比较熟悉的、具体的细节,然后谈论读者不大熟悉的细节,如示范段落16-1。

19.3 使用顺序法的一般准则

到目前为止,我们共讨论了四种组织段落顺序,使用哪一种顺序取决于作者的写作目的和读者对主题的熟悉程度。

1)如果你要说服别人相信一个观点,应该选用重要性顺序,把最好和最有力的理由放在能使读者最容易牢记的地方——段末。

2)如果你要向读者准确地展示一个场面,则应选用空间顺序描述,以便你的读者能够在脑海中再现你所描绘的画面。

3)如果读者对你要谈论的话题不大熟悉,则应从熟悉的观点着手。

4)如果你要告诉读者发生了什么事情或怎样做某件事,则需要时间顺序。

Exercise 19-1

Directions:Read the following two paragraphs and analyze their orders of organization.

  

(1)

  

Why are young people so enthusiastic about computers?It is mainly because they find that the computer has a large number of desirable properties.First,it's not terribly demanding,and it does what it is told.Second,it's easier to be a friend to a computer,for it won't make fun of you.Nor does it scold you or talk back.Third,the computer is more interesting than any other object.Like people,it is interactive.When you ask it a question,it gives you an answer.And because it stores great quantities of information,it can oftenanswer more questions,more accurately,than human friends.Finally,by programing a computer,a youngster can create a world of his own.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

Developing Method:_________________________________________

Details:1._______________________________________________

2._______________________________________________

3._______________________________________________

4._______________________________________________

Order of Organization:________________________________________

  

(2)

  

People travel because travel benefits them in a number of ways.First,it enables people to derive much pleasure from seeing sight sand snapping pictures.Second,it provides an effective way to get their mind off their work.It relieves them from strain and makes them thoroughly relaxed and ready to resume their work with rennewed efforts.Third,it offers an opportunity to visit old friends and make new friends,too.Finally,it allows people to see new customs,learn new things,gain new experience and enables them to come back with broader mind.

Topic Sentence:____________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

Developing Method:________________________________________



Details:1.______________________________________________

2.______________________________________________

3.______________________________________________

4.______________________________________________

Order of Organization:______________________________________


第二十单元 推展段落方法——混合方法

  

20.1 混合方法(Mixed Patterns)

到目前为止,我们讨论了九种推展段落方法——1)事实数据法(facts and statistics);2)叙述法(narration);3)描述法(description);4)过程分析法(process analysis);5)定义法(definition);6)举例法(examples);7)比较对比法(comparison and contrast);8)分类法(division and classification);9)因果法(cause and effect)。我们还讨论了四种组织段落的方法:1)时间顺序法(time order);2)空间顺序法(space order);3)重要性顺序法(order of importance);4)熟悉度顺序法(order of familiarity)。此外,我们还谈及一个好的段落的三个特征:1)完整性(completeness);2)统一性(unity);3)连贯性(coherence)。

我们在前面各单元的示范段落中已经发现,极少段落是仅用一种推展方法的。作者常常在段落中使用一种方法作为支配方法(dominant method),另外一种或数种作为辅助方法(supporting method)。

示范段落20-1

Man's knowledge of the past has sometimes been gained in odd ways.One of the oddest incidents occurred on January 16,1900.An angry workman broke a crocodile mummy into pieces.He wassurprised to find that the mummy had been wrapped in sheets of papyrus,the reed paper of ancient Egypt.And on the papyrus there was writing.

20.2示范段落分析

主题句:Man's knowledge of the past has sometimes been gained in odd ways.

组织段落顺序:Time order

支配推展方法:Example

辅助推展方法:Narration

示范段落20-2

There are two kinds of memory:short-term and long-term.Information stored in the long-term memory can be recalled at a later time when it is needed.The information may be kept for days or weeks.In contrast,information stored in the short-term memory is kept for only a few minutes,usually by repeating the in formation over and over.

20.3示范段落分析

主题句:There are two kinds of memory:short-term and long-term.

组织段落方法:Order of Familiarity

支配推展方法:Division and Classification

辅助推展方法:Description,Contrast

Exercise 20-1

Directions:Write a paragraph on population increase,using cause and effect as the dominant method,and examples,facts or statistics as the supporting methods.

Why has the world population been increasing so rapidly in the last decades?_____________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


第二十一单元 从段落到篇章

  

21.1 段落和篇章

段落和篇章在长度上有明显的不同,但是它们在结构上是一致的。首先,段落是由表达其主题思想的主题句(Topic Sentence)或主题导句(Topic Introducer)引出的,而篇章中的首段也是该篇文章主题思想的导言和引言;其次,一个段落必须有若干个展开句使主题思想得以展开和充实,同样篇章的主体部分也是由几个推展或后续首段主题思想的段落组成。再者,在段落结束时有一个结尾句(Concluding Sentence)总结段落的主旨,篇章也同样有一个对上下文进行归纳和总结主题思想的末段。尽管不是所有的段落和篇章都具备这样的完整结构,但典型的段落和篇章在结构上是一致的。

根据上述,让我们比较一下Model Paragraph 21-1和Model Essay 21-2,后者的主题思想完全基于前者。所不同的是,Model Paragraph中的六个句子①,②,③,④,⑤,⑥均已被扩展成Model Essay中的六个段落。

Model Paragraph 21-1

①To be successful in a job interview,the applicant should demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities.②In as much as the first and often lasting impression of a person isdetermined by the clothes one wears,the job applicant should take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed,avoiding the extremes of too elaborate or too casual attire.③Besides care for personal appearance,one should pay close attention to one's manner of speaking,which should be neither showy nor too familiar but rather straightforward,grammatically accurate,and friendly.④In addition,one should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position for which one is applying in relation to one's own professional experience and interests.⑤And finally,there ally impressive applicant must convey a sense of self-confidence and enthusiasm for work,factors which all interviewers value highly.⑥The job seeker who displays these characteristics,with just a little luck,will certainly succeed in a typical personal interview.

Model Essay 21-2

①To be successful in a job interview,you should demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities.You need to create a good image in the limited time available,usually from 30 to 45 minutes.Furthermore,you must make a positive impression which the interviewer will remember while he interviews other applicants.A tall times,you should present your most attractive qualities during an interview.

②You should,for example,take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed,avoiding the extremes of too elaborate or too casual attire.On the positive side,clothes may be a good leveller,putting you on a par with other applicants and requiring the interviewer to consider more important qualifications.On the otherhand,clothes which are too informal may convey the impression that you are not serious about the job or that you may be casual about your work as well as your dress.Clothes which are too elaborate,too colorful,or too expensive suggest that you do not understand what behavior is appropriate for the job or that you are snobbish or frivolous.The right clothes worn at the right time,however,gain the respect of the interviewer and his confidence in your judgement.It may not be true that“clothes make the man,”but the first and often lasting impression of you is determined by the clothes you wear.

③Besides care for personal appearance,you should pay close attention to your manner of speaking.Since speech is a reflection of personality,you should reflect confidence by speaking in a clear voice,loud enough to be heard without being aggressive or overpowering.Your speech should not call attention to itself,but it should reveal the individuality and ability of the speaker.Obviously,you must speak without grammatical errors or dialect differences for which you might be criticised or which might cause embrarrassment to the employer.Although there are cultural differences with respect to the formality of the job interview,your speech must show you to be a friendly and pleasant person.

④Speaking without a subject worth talking about will not impress anyone.You should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position for which you are applying in relation to your own professional experiences and interests.Knowing something about the position enables you to ask intelligent questions about the work and requirements for the job.The interviewer candecide from the questions asked whether you are genuinely interested or knowledgeable.You can comment on your own training,experience,and other qualifications in relation to the specific tasks of the position.the interviewer can determine whether your background and potential seem to fit the position.The position for which you are applying is not only the safest topic for discussion,it is essential that you demonsrtate your understanding of the requirements and your abilities in meeting these requirements.

⑤Finally,to be really impressive you must convey a sense of self-confidence and enthusiasm for work.As already indicated,you demonstrate self-confidence by your manner of speech and dress.You further show it by being prepared for the interview with information and questions about the position.In addition,the way you enter the room,sit,look at the interviewer,and fill out application forms and other papers may express self-confidence.The eagerness with which you discuss the job rather than the salary may reveal your enthusiasm for work.You may express it also through your questions and comments about working conditions and facilities.And,Of course,your previous experience and success will tell the interviewer about your enthusiasm for work.Both of these qualities—self-confidence and enthusiasm for work—are valued highly by all interviewers.

⑥The appropriately dressed job applicant indicates his sound judgement.His manner of speaking suggests his friendliness and competence.His curiosity and information about the position he is seeking demonstrate his sincerity and potential in the job.He exhibits self-confidence through his knowledge,and he shows hisenthusiasm for work.If you display these characteristics,with just a little luck,you will certainly succeed in the typical personal interview.

21.2 段落与篇章的结构

根据所给范例,我们可以看到段落的结构很简单,它主要是由三部分组成的:

1)主题句(Topic Sentence):引出全段的主题思想。

2)几个支撑句(Supporting Sentences):说明或铺叙该段落的主题思想。

3)结尾句(Concluding Sentence):总结段落的主旨。

由此,范例段落的结构可表达为:TS/S1,S2,S3,S4/C=

①/②,③,④,⑤/⑥。

TS:主题句

S:支撑句

C:结尾句

同样,段落的组成结构TS/S1,S2,S3,S4/C又可以说是篇章结构的扩展,篇章也由三部分组成:

1)主题段(Topic Paragraph):引出并点明支配全篇文章的主题,指出主题所包含的几个方面,确定推展段的内容和形式。

2)支撑段(Supporting Paragraphs):由若干段落组成,对主题段所引出的主题展开讨论。其直接作用是支持各段的主题句,间接作用是辅助各段的主题句支持主题段中的主题思想。

3)结尾段(Concluding Paragraph):对全文归纳总结。一般可采用以下四种方式对全文进行归纳:a.简明归纳全文;b.回顾主题,使首尾呼应;c.变化措词,重申主题;d、提出问题,启发思考。

21.3 Model Paragraph 21-1.和Model Essay 21-2.的分析

由此可以看出段落范例中的主题句已扩展成为篇章中的主题段;支撑句S1发展为第一支撑段的主题句;支撑句S2成为第二支撑段的主题句……;范例段中的结尾句则成了结尾段的主题句。

第二十二单元 篇章的统一性、支撑性、连贯性和一致性

  

22.1 篇章的统一性(Unity of an Essay)

篇章的统一性是指各推展段落都必须紧扣主题思想,不包含与主题思想无关的任何部分。如果包含与主题思想无关的部分或出现多层意思,就会导致主旨不清,思路混乱。

22.2 篇章的支撑性(Support of an Essay)

只有通过具体的实例、事实、细节或事件对篇章中的主题思想加以充实和发挥,才能使文章的主题更加明确具体。例如:在Unit 21-2范文中的四个Supporting Paragraphs(SP1,SP2,SP3,SP4)都是通过具体的实例、细节,来进一步明确本篇文章的主题思想—To be successful in a job interview,you must demonstrate cetain personal and professional qualities.

22.3 篇章的连贯性(Coherence of an Essay)

篇章的连贯性是指句子与句子,段落与段落的排列组合必须合乎逻辑(意连);句子间以及段落间的过渡必须自然流畅(形连)。篇章的意连有三种:a.Time Order or Chronological Order(时间顺序);b.Space or Spatial Order(位置或空间顺序);c.Logical Order(逻辑顺序)。其中,逻辑顺序又可分为三种:

1)Order of Importance(重要性顺序)

2)Specific-to-General(从具体到总论)

3)General-to-Spacific(从总论到具体)

例如,在Unit 21中的Model Essay中,作者就是以General-to-Specific的逻辑顺序来推展文章主题的。作者先是给出一个Topic Sentence,然后通过四个具体的“You should……”对主题加以支撑、充实,从而达到了意连。

而转换此词语(Transitions)则是篇章形连的重要手段。

Unit 21中的Model Essay也正是通过许许多多的转换词语使文章达到了自然流畅。以下让我们就此范文的首段(TP)和第一支撑段(SP1)为例,来看看转换词语承上启下之作用。





22.4 篇章的一致性(Sentence Skills in an Essay)

若要读者完全、正确地领会我们所要表达的思想内容,在写作篇章时,我们必须简洁明白,写出合乎语法规范的句子,正确的语法包括(nouns;pronouns;verb tenses;fragments(不完整的句子);dangling modifiers(垂悬修饰语);run-ons(用错逗号的句子或乱加从句的冗长句子),etc.



第二十三单元 如何用举例法推展篇章

  

根据不同的写作目的,篇章写作一般分为四种主要类型:

1)Narration(叙述文)

2)Description(描写文)

3)Exposition(说明文)

4)Persuasion and argumentation(议论文)

从本单元起,我们将着重介绍在大学英语四级统考中应用得最为广泛的说明文。说明文常用于阐述事物的特征、本质、性能、结构、用途等。抽象的说明是很难让人理解和接受的,所以在进行说明时我们常用举例法、比较与对照法、定义与分类法、过程分析法和因果法等写作方法推展段落和篇章。这些方法均已在段落推展法之四、五、六、七、八、九中一一做了介绍。以下我们将在第二十三、二十四、二十五、二十六及二十七单元中分别用这些方法对篇章的推展作进一步的讨论。

另外,在今后的各单元中,我们将尽量少用汉语,以便使大家养成用英语思维的良好习惯。

23.1 举例法Examples

在篇章写作中,我们常用实例来对自己的观点或文章的主题思想进行说明、解释,使抽象、难解的事物具体化。这不仅有助于读者感受到我们的观点,而且可使文章读起来生动、有趣。切记:举例时一定要典型,能为文章的主题思想服务;而且还要生动、有趣,给人以深刻印象。

23.2 Comparison of Two Model Essays(两例范文的比较)

  

1)My Bad-Tempered Father

  

My father is easily angered by normal,everyday mistake.One day my father told me to wash the car and cut the grass.I did not hear exactly what he said,and so I asked him to repeat it.Then he went into a hysterical mood and shouted,“Can't you hear?”

Another time he asked my mother to go to the store and buy groceries with a fifty-dollar bill,and told her to spend no more than twenty dollars.She spent twenty-two dollars.As soon as he found out,he immediately grabbed the change from her and shouted that she was never to do any errands for him again.He did not speak to her for the rest of the day.

My father also gives my older brothers a hard time with his irritable moods.One day,he told them to be home from their dates by midnight;they came home at 12∶15.He informed them that they were grounded for three weeks.

To my father,making a simple mistake is like commiting a severe crime.

  

2)My Generous Grandfather

  

My grandfather is the most generous person I know.He has given up a life of his own in order to give his grandchildren everything they want.Not only has he given up many years of his life to raise his children properly,but he is now sacrificing many more years to his grandchildren.

His generosity is also evident in his relationship with his colleagues,neighbors and friends.He has been responsible for many good deeds and has always been there to help all the people around him in times of trouble.Everyone knows that he will gladly lend a helping hand.

He is so generous that you almost have to feel sorry for him.If one day he suddenly became selfish,it would be earthshaking.That's my grandfather.

23.3 Analysis of the Two Model Essays(两例范文的分析)

The first passage is more effective,for it offers specific examples that show us the father in action.We see for ourselves why the writer describes the father as bad-tempered.It also uses transitional phrases or sentence to organize the passange more clearly and logically.Using“one day”,the writer introduces us the first example of his father's hot temper;“Another time”indicates the second example and the transitional sentence“My father also gives my older brothers a hard time with his irritable moods”indicates another example will follow.It is the supporting examples and the transitional devices that make the passage more effective and coherent.

The second writer,on the other hand,gives us no specific evidence.The writer tells us repeatedly that the grandfather is generous but never shows us examples of that generosity.Just how,for instance,did the grandfather sacrifice his life for his children and grandchildren?Did the grandfather hold two jobs so that his soncould go to college,or so that his daughter could finish her education?Does he give up time with his wife and friends to travel every day to his daughter's house to baby sit,go to the store,and help with the dishes?We need to judge for ourselves whether the writer is making a valid point about the grandfather,but with out specific details we cannot do so.In fact,we have almost no picture of the grandfather at all.

Writing Assignment for Unit 23

Directions:Write a short passage of the title“My Sweet-Tempered Mother according to the given topic sentence.

Remember to provide specific details to illustrate your point and use transitional words or phrases to make your writing more clearly and coherently.You may write your passage on the good qualities of a person by using some of the descriptive words listed below.They are only suggestions,you can write about other qualities as well.

honest                hardworking         supportive           modest

open-minded       considerate           independent         good-humoured

cooperative         energetic              disciplined           patient

generous            trustworthy          neat                    courageous

ambitious            soft-hearted          reliable                unpretentious

My mother is the most sweet-tempered person I know.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

第二十四单元 如何用比较与对照法推展篇章

  

24.1 Comparison and Contrast(比较与对照)

Often we may want to describe several aspects of two subjects that have both similarities and differences.When we compare two things,we show how they are similar;when we contrast two things,we show how they are different.We may compare or contrast two schools,two cars,two friends,two jobs,two cities,etc..For this purpose,we may employ the combined techniques of comparison and contrast.In writing the essay,you should always bear two important decisions in mind:①Whether you are to do a comparison,a contrast,or a mixture,or②Whether you are to use an item-to-item(逐事比较)or point-to-point(逐点比较)method of development(both have been explained and illustrated in Unit14)

Model Essay 24-1

Shanghai and New York are two of the biggest cities in the world.They are different in some ways,but they are similar in some other ways.

Shanghai is one of the most densely populated cities in Asia,and New York is one of the most densely populated cities in North America.The population of Shanghai is homogenous,but thepopulation of New York is heterogeneous.The people in Shanghai speak Chinese;the people in New York speak English instead.The cost of living in Shanghai is generally low in comparison with that in New York.While the people in Shanghai take buses or ride bikes to go to work,the people in New York drive cars or take subways to get to work.The people in Shanghai use fans to keep cool,where as the people in New York use air-conditioning.

Both Shanghai and New York are cities of great wealth and poverty.In both cities,there is a great deal of beauty and a great deal of ugliness.Many people in Shanghai are as kind and helpful as those in New York.Conversely,some people in Shanghai are as dangerous as those in New York.In both cities,there are people who work all day and people who work all night.Both cities are never asleep.

To some visitors,both Shanghai and New York are a paradise and a jungle.

24.2 Analysis of the Model Essay(范文分析)

From the above point-to-point essay,we can see that the similarities and differences of Shanghai and New York are as follows:

①Differences:

a.population(homogeneous S

(heterogeneous NY

b.language (Chinese S

(English NY

C.cost of living(low S

(high NY

d.transportation(buses and bikes S

(cars and subways NY

e.cooling appliances(fans S

(air-conditioning NY

②Similarities:

a.both are most densely populated

b.both are cities of great wealth and poverty

c.both are beautiful and ugly

d.both have kind and helpful people and dangerous people

e.both are never asleep

通过以上比较和对照法的结合使用,作者巧妙地将与主题有关的五个异同点联系在一起,交替进行逐点比较、对照,这使得读者从始至终能够把握比较与对照的线索。而且,作者又在比较与对照的结构上灵活地安排了次序,使对比既鲜明突出,又富有变化;作者还通过不同的连接手段,如并列连词“and,both,as…as”,与转折连词“but,instead,while,whereas,in comparision with”等,使得比较与对照自然流畅,前后连贯。

Writing Assignment for Unit 24

Directions:Write a 3-paragraph essay about the similarities and differences between Tom and Jack by using the outline given below.Don't forget to use some of the Comparative and Contrastive words or phrases given in Unit 35.

Tom and Jack are twin brothers.They are similar in some ways;but the ways they spend their own freetime,make decisions and deal with problems are very different.

Similarities:1)appearance

2)eating habits

3)study

Differences:1)ways of spending free time

2)ways of making decisions

3)ways of dealing with problems


第二十五单元 如何用定义与分类法推展篇章

  

25.1 Definition and Classification(定义与分类)

A writer often employs more than one method of development in an essay.In order to make it easier or clearer for the reader,the author may,for instance,decide to classify objects,events or terms by retaining a few classes rather than many specific items.Additionally,he may need to define the lables he uses in classifying the subject,especially if the lables are not widely known or are abstract.

在进行定义或分类写作时需注意:1)在进行诠释(定义)时,一定要具体、确切;2)分类时要周密,标准必须对应划一,不能交错重叠。

Model Essay 25-1

Nowadays,more and more people have books in their homes,but few of them really ‘own’the books.In Professor Adler's opinion,there are three kinds of book owners.The first kind of owners have all the standard sets and best-sellers-books that are sold in very large numbers—unread,untouched.(These owner sown only wood pulp and ink,not books.)

Another kind of book owners have a great many books—a few of them read through,most of them dipped into,that is,most ofthe books are only read or studied for a short time or without much attention;but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought.(These persons would probably like to make books their own,but are restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.)

The final kind of book owners,however,have a few books or many,every one of them do geared(having the corners of the pages bent down with use,like a dog's ears) and dilapidated(broken and old,falling to pieces),shaken and loosened by continual use,marked and scribbled in from front to back.(These men really own books.)

Do you agree with Pr of.Adler?

25.2 Analysis of the Model Essay(范文分析)

In the above model essay,according to the writer,book owners can be divided into three kinds.They are as follows:

1)Owners with all standard sets and best-sellers—unread,untouched;

2)Owners with a great many books,a few of them read through,most off them dipped into;

3)Owners with a few books or many,every one of them do geared,dilapidated,shaken and loosened…

根据范例所示,我们得知作者将有书的人划为三类,其分类根据是划一的,分出的三类book owners互相排除,没有重叠。作者还通过使用“the first kind…another kind…the final kind…”等这些转换词语,有机地围绕主题“There are three kinds of book owners”,介绍了三种不同类型的“owners”。此外,作者还将一些读者不知或概念不清的词、词组,如“bestsellers”,“dipped into”,“do geared”,“dilapidated”等下了定义,这便达到了使读者完全领会其意的目的。

Writing Assignment for Unit 25

Directions:Write a 3-paragraph essay according to the given information below about “Kinds of Library Materials Found in Most Good Libraries”by using the techniques taught in this unit.Do remember to define some of the unknown words.

1)books(on all subjects,in different languages,organized in the card catalog,which can be checked out and borrowed for a month)

2)reference works(including encyclopedias,dictionaries,bibliographies,atlases,which can only be used in the library itself)

3)periodcals(including magazines,newspapers,pamphlets,which cannot be removed from the library)

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


第二十六单元 如何用过程分析法推展篇章

  

26.1 Process(过程法)

Process descripton is similar to the procedures followed in conducting a scientific experiment.It describes definite steps in a logical order.

In this unit,you will be asked to write a process essay—one that explains clearly how to do or make something.

In almost all the essays we have discussed,the topic sentence has appeared at or near the beginning of the first paragraph.In a well constructed process description,the topic sentence establishes the context of the process developed in succceeding sentences and paragraphs.Notice that in the following model essay the process of making a complaint is divided into three major steps.

Model Essay 26-1

  

How to Make a Complaint

  

Have you ever experienced the unpleasant situations of being a victimized consumer?I think most of you have.In self-defense,I have developed the following consumer's guide to complaining effectively.

The first step is getting organized.I save all sales slips and original boxes so that whenever I complain, I would know the dateof the purchase,the correct price,and the place where the item was purchased.Then I compose my letter of complaint.The next step is to send the complaint to the person who will get results quickly.Usually,I write directly to the president of a company and I always get prompt action.Finally,if I get no response to a written complaint within ten days,I follow through with a personal telephone call.

Therefore,my advice to you is to keep accurate records,and when you have to complain,go right to the top.It has always worked for me.

26.2 Analysis of the Model Essay(范文分析)

A more visual representation of the model essay process development would be like this:

1)Topic introducer:I have developed the following consumer's guide to complaining effectively.

2)Process steps:a.Keep accurate records

b.When complaining,go right to the top

c.following up with further action

3)Conclusion:Therefore,my advice to you is to……

26.3 Advice on How to Write a Process Essay

1)State your topic in a single clear sentence.

For instance,“Knowing how to prepare for an important exam can lead you to success”or “Growing your own vegetables is easier than you might think”.

2)First make a list of all the steps you are describing.



Take“How to Make a Complaint”for example:

write letter of complaint

follow through with a telephone call if no response

save sales slips and original boxes

send complaint letter directly to president

3)Then number your items in time order or logical order.

①save sales slips and original boxes

② write letter of complaint

③send complaint letter directly to president

④follow through with telephone call if no response

4)Group the item into a minimum of three steps.

For example,you might divide the process into①getting organized;②sending the complaint to president;③following up with further action.

5)Be sure to use transitions,such as,“first,next,also,then,after,now,during,and finally”so that your essay moves smoothly and clearly from one step in the process to the next.

Writing Assignment for Unit 26

Directions:Write a 3-paragraph essay on the topic “How to Prepare for an Important Exam”in no less than 100 words.

Remember to write clearly.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



第二十七单元 如何用因果法推展篇章

  

27.1 Cause and Effect(因果法)

The stating of facts and the giving of reasons to explain why and how the facts came about is the basic procedure in essay development by cause and effect.The technique of cause and effect has great flexibility,for the relationships between causes and effects are not always as clear cut as the two terms seem to suggest.Causes may not all carry the same weight,for example.Several contributing causes may be grounded together to form one important cause.There may be one effect to a cause,or there may be many.Effects may be less important than causes,and so on.So you have to be very careful in dealing with cause and effect.

Model Essay 27-1

As it is known to everyone,languages are constantly changing nowadays.There are many reasons why languages change,but the following three major causes may help illustrate the concept.Initially,various languages that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolated,independent communities.

Another major cause of language change is the influence of and interaction with foreign cultures,often as a result of militaryconquest.A continuing cause for change is rapidly expanding technology and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into closer contact,with borrowing between language a common phenomenon in the contemporary world.

New established communities,the influence of and interaction with foreign cultures,the rapid development of technology and new systems of communication contribute to language change.So we may say all languages change as the experiences of their speakers change.

27.2 Analysis of the Model Essay(范文分析)

The three causes of language change mentioned in the above model essay can be outlined as follows:

effect:Languages are changing constantly.

cause:a.newly established communities

b.the influence of and interaction with foreign cultures

c.the rapid development of technology and new systems of communication

本文作者首先点出主题思想:Languages are contantly changing(表明结果),接着列举了导致发生变化的三大原因,并举例加以说明,使读者对文中的因果关系一清二楚(此篇文章着重强调了语言发展变化的原因)。此外,文中所用的一些转换词语使文章有了明显的连贯性。作者通过“initially…another major cause is…a continuing cause for change is…”这一灵活多变的转换句式巧妙地引出了语言变化的三大原因。因此,文章读起来既连贯一致,又具有较强的说服力。

Writing Assignment 1

Directions:Write a 3-paragraph essay by using the cause-effect technique to illustrate why football is becoming more and more popular in recent years.The title and the given information will be of help.

1)It is played world wide;

2)It is an exciting game—both for players and viewers;

3)There are many football fans throughout the world.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Writing Assignment 2

Directions:Write a 3-paragraph essay by using the cause-effect technique to illustrate the causes of global warming.Your composition should be no less than 100 words.Base your ideas on the given outline below.

Recently there has been an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere,which,in turn,causes global warming.

1)increased power generation using coal or oil;

2)increasing numbers of gasoline engines-cars,trucks,etc.;

3)growth of industrial production;



第二十八单元 情景作文Situational Composition

  

According to the syllabus and the practice up till now,CET—4composition usually has the following five types:situational composition(情景作文),key words composition(关键词作文),topic sentence composition(主题句作文),title-given composition(给出题目作文) and writing a composition according to tables and graphs(图表作文).

The examinees are required to follow the directions and develop the composition into three paragraphs to form an essay of no less than 100 words in 30 minutes.The essay should be clear,coherent and grammatically correct.Therefore,from this unit on,we are going to introduce the above five types of compositions respectively.

28.1 Situational Composition

In recent years,situational composition has been frequently used in CET—4.This kind of writing requires students to write according to the given situation(sometimes in Chinese,sometimes in English);its characteristic is that the main idea and information are all contained in the given situation.

Sample Test Item

Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a three-paragraph composition on the topic“My Favourite Programme”.You should write no less than 100 word sand yon should base your composition on the outline(Given in Chinese)below.

1)我最喜爱的电视(或无线电)节目是……

2)这类节目的内容和特点;

3)我喜欢它的原因。

28.2 Analysis and Advice on the Writing

1)Read the directions carefully and make sure you understand them clearly,and try to understand everything that you are required to do;

2)Examine the given situation of each paragraph,then pick out the key words;

e.g.The key words of the above sample are:

①最喜爱的节目②内容,特点③原因

3)Find out the relationship between the title and each paragraph;

In the first paragraph,you write what your favourite programme is;and in the second paragraph,you have to describe the contents and characteristic of your chosen programme;In the end,yon write why yon like this particular programme.

4)You must produce the topic sentence of each paragraph.

e.g.

①My most favourite programme is……

②The programme is interesting as well as;instructive.

③The reason why I like it is that……

Model Essay 28-1

Nowadays radio and TV play a more and more important role in our daily lives.There are many programmes shown every day.Some of them are very good.My most favourite programme is“The Animal World”,which is shown on television every Sunday night.

The programme is interesting as well as instructive.It providesus with natural scenes of the lives of all kinds of wild animals together with the vivid explanations of the narrator.Besides,the pictures are very beautiful and some of them are also very valuable.They contain much information not only about animals,but also about plants.

The reason why I like this programme is that,being born and bred in the city,I have not seen any wild animals,and the programme compensates for this.In addition,it provides me with rich knowledge about nature and the animal world.

Believe it or not,it is really a great joy to watch it.

Writing Assignment for Unit 28

Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic“Why Do More And More Women Go In For Sports Nowadays?”You should write no less than 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline(Given in Chinese)below.

1)妇女开始参加越来越多的体育运动;

2)过去妇女不能参加体育运动的原因;

3)为什么会有越来越多的妇女参加。


第二十九单元 主题句作文Topic Sentence Composition

  

29.1 Introduction

This is the most common composition practised in CET-4.Usually the title and the topic sentences of each paragraph are given.You are required to write exactly according to the title.You must use the given topic sentences.

Sample Test Item:

Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about“Television ”in three paragraphs.

You are given the first sentence of each paragraph an dare required to develop the idea in completing the paragraph.Your composition should be about 100words,not including the words given. Remember to write clearly.

  

Television

  

1)Television presents a vivid world in front of us.

2)Television can also play an educational role in our daily life.

3)However,television can also be harmful.

29.2 Analysis and Advice on How to Deal with the Essay

1)Read the directions carefully,and make sure that you understand the requirements;

2)Find out the relationship between the title and the topic sentences.

From the above analysis,we know that we may use the technique of examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of television in our daily life.

3)Thoroughly examine the topic sentences,then pick out keywords in each topic sentence;

e.g.The key words of each topic sentence in the above writing are:“vivid world”,“educational role in daily life”,“harmful”.

4)Find out the relationships between the topic sentences;

From the given topic sentences,we can see that the second topic sentence is a further development of the first one.The transitional word“also”shows that the two topic sentences are parellel.So we have to write the advantages of television in the first two paragraphs—in the first paragraph,write“vivid world”,while in the second,“educational role”;In the third topic sentence,the transitional word “However”changes the point of view from positive“vivid”,“educational”to negative“harmful”.Thus,we should write the disadvantages of television in the paragraph.

Model Essay 29-1

  

Television

  

Television presents a vivid world in front of us.On television,we can watch exciting football matches or Olympic marathons.We can“travel”to New York to visit its famous monuments and museums or to London to attend the royal wedding.We can also“go”to a concert with a cup of coffee in one hand. With a TV set,we can take part in many events without leaving the house.

Television can also play an educational role in our daily life.Besides regular courses to TV university students,television also offers various educational programmes for different viewers.Children like“Tan gram”;young people like the“ABC of Computers”;and elderly people like“Life and Health”.Of all the educational programmes,“English on Sunday ”is my favourite.

However,television can also be harmful.It hurts our eyes and can cause nearsightedness.Watching TV too much influences our sleep and work and cuts down children's study time.Furthermore,some TV programmes are ideologically incorrect.In short,we should watch TV selectively and regard it as our servant,not our master.

Writing Assignment for Unit 29

Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about “Advertisement” in three paragraphs.You are given the first sentence of eachparagraph and are required to develop the idea in completing the paragraph.Your composition should beabout 100 words,not including the words given.Remember to write clearly.

  

Advertisement

  

1)Advertisement appears everywhere in modern society.

2)Advertisement can be a service to people.

3)However,advertisement also has its problems.


第三十单元 关键词作文Key Words Composition

  

30.1 Introduction

In this kind of composition,a series of key words are given together with the title.It requires students' imagination and association in connecting the words logically without going astray from the main topic.

Sample Test Item

指示:在30分钟内以“City and Countryside”为题,写一篇120词左右的短文,必需包括下列关键词及表达方式,要求使用正确、恰当。

Key                        Words                      and   Expressions:

similarities               differences                environment

transportation          education                  entertainment

colourful                 boring                       public health servic

reduce                    the                           gap

30.2 Analysis and Advice on How to Achieve Successful Writing

1) Read the directions carefully,and try to understand each word or phrase including the title;

2)Find out the relationship between the key words and the title;

The analysis of the above tells us that we should use the technique of comparison & contrast to write the essay,showing the differences between the city and the country-side.

3)Analyse the key words,then organize your idea logicall;According to the title and the key words,we know that the purpose of the writing is to discuss the similarities and differences of the city and the countryside.You should divide the key words into three paragraphs.In the first paragraph,introduce the main topic— the city and the countryside have both similarities and differences;In the second paragraph,discuss the different fields—environment,education,transportation,entertainment and health service in the city and countryside;In the end,summarize the whole passage.

4)Write an appropriate topic sentence for each paragraph before starting your essay;

a.topic introducer:The city and the countryside are similar in some ways,but there still exist great differences in several areas.

b.topic sentence:Generally speaking,the city and the countryside differ mainly in the fields of environment,transportation,public health service,edtucation and entertainment.

                                       City                             Countryside

environment                   polluted                          fresh,clean

transportation                 convenient,cheap          difficult,costly

public health service        well-equipped                poor-equipped

education                       advanced                        backward

entertainment                  colourful                         boring

c.Conclusion:As we have seen,there are still great differences between the city and the countryside,but further economic development will certainly reduce the gap between the two in the near future.

Model Essay 30-1

The city and the countryside are similar in some ways,but there still exist great differences in several areas.Generally speaking,the city and the countryside differ mainly in the fields of environment,transportation,public health service,education and entertaintment.

First of all,in the city public transport is good and brings people to almost any place in a short time and for little money while travelling in the countryside is difficult and costly.On the other hand,heavy traffic and business activities in the city pollute the environment whereas the air in the countryside is fresh and clean and filled with bird songs.Secondly,people in the city can get advanced education;However students in the countryside can not.What's more,if city dwellers are ill,it is easy for them to get treatment in a well-equipped hospital;On the contrary,the rural population has to travel long distances to see a doctor.Finally,the many stores,cinemas,dancing halls and restaurants make life in the city colorful as opposed to the simple and some people even say boring life in the countryside.

As we have seen,there are still great differences between the city and the countryside,but further economic development will certainly reduce the gap between the two in the near future.

Writing Assignment for Unit 30

指示:(略)Students In Colleges and High Schools

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Key Words and Expressions:

similarities,differences,homework,attend classes,call the parents,under the supervision of,treated as adults,study hard,enjoy sports and games,talk with friends and classmates

第三十一单元 给出题目作文Title-Given Composition

  

31.1 Introduction

A title-given composition requires students to grasp the ideas expressed in the title,and to create a piece of writing that has unity,support and coherence. Because there is no hints or any extra information in addition to the title.This kind of writing is comparatively difficult.But students may have a lot of freedom in writing.

Sample Test Item

Directions:Write a composition on the topic“Should Firecrackers Be Banned?”Your composition should be at least 100words.Remember to support the main idea with details and make your conclusion.Coherence is also important.

Write clearly.

31.2 Advice on How to Write the Composition

1)Examine the title carefully and make sure that you understand the main idea of the title;

2)Organize your ideas and write out an outline;

3)Produce a topic sentence for each paragraph;

4)Draft your essay.

31.3 Analysis of the Sample Test Item

1)Main idea of the title

The controlling idea is“firecrackers”.You seem to have a lot to write about.But your topic has been limited by the sentence“Should…be banned?”It is an interrogative sentence,so it must be a controversial topic.

2)Outline of the sample

Since it is a controversial topic,different opinions must exist.Thus,it is advisable to write out the conflicting opinions of different people.

a.different people have different opinions

b.good—reflects the heritage of Chinese culture

adds much to the warm atmosphere

adds emjoyment of people

bad—brings great economic loss to the country

causes certain disorder in the society

pollutes our environment

c.Your own opinion and conclusion

3)Topic Sentence of each paragraph

① Firecrackers have been used in China for hundreds of years.

② People in China have different opinions about setting off firecrackers.

③ In my opinion,setting off firecrackers should be banned.

Model Essay 31-1

  

Should Firecrackers be Banned?

  

Firecrackers have been used in China for hundreds of years.Firecrackers were always part of New Year's celebrations,weddings and other important occasions.

In recent years,however,people in China have different opinions about the old custom of setting off firecrackers.Some people think setting off firecrackers is a good thing,because it reflects the heritage of Chinese culture.It also adds much to the enjoyment of people and the warm atmosphere during important holidays.But others,on the other hand,believe that setting off firecrackers should be banned.The main reasons in their eyes are that it not only brings great economic loss to the country,but also causes certain disorder in the society.Furthermore,it pollutes our environment.

In my opinion,setting off firecrackers should be banned.However,we should replace this old custom with new enjoyable and safe ways of entertainment.Only then can we spend our holidays in a peaceful and joyful manner.

Exercise for Unit 31

Directions:(略) Is Failure a Bad Thing?


第三十四单元 转换词语Transitional Words and Phrases

  

34.1 Introduction

In the writing of English compositions,we have to use transitional words or phrases in order to make logical connections between individual sentences and paragraphs as well as enhance the overall coherence of an essay.Otnerwise,the paragraph or the essaywill be loosely connected.To see the difference,let's compare the following two versions of a paragraph:

  

(1)

  

Speaking and writing are different in many ways.Speech depends on sounds.Writing uses written symbols.Speech developed about 500,000 years ago.Written language is a comparatively recent development.It was invented only about six thousand years ago.Speech is usually Informal.The word choice in writing is often relatively formal.Pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing.A standard diction and spelling system prevails in the writtenlanguage of most countries.Speech relies on gesture,loudness,and the rise and fall of the voice.Writing lacks gesture,loudness,and the rise and fall of the voice.Careful speakers and writers are aware of the difference.

  

(2)

  

Speaking and writing are different in many ways.Speech depends on sounds;writing,on the other hand,uses written symbols. Speech was developed about 500,000 years ago,but written language is a comparatively recent development,invented only about six thousand years ago.Speech is usually informal,while the word choice of writing,by contrast,is often relatively formal.Although pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing,a standard diction and spelling system prevails in the written language of most countries.Speech relies on gesture,loudness,and the rise and fall of the voice,but writing lacks these features.Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.

34.2 Analysis of the above two versions

In paragraph(1),almost all connections are missing.Therefore,it is rather difficult for us to tell in how many ways speaking and writing are different.In paragraph(2),however,by using the six comparsion and contrast transitions,“on the other hand”,“but”,“while”,“by contrast”and“although”,we can easily identify that speaking and writing are different in six aspects.

34.3 常用的转换词语类型(Types of Commonly Used Transitional Words or Phrases)

1)Listing列举

first,second,third

firstly,secondly,thirdly

first,furthermore,finally

in the first place,in the second place,finally

last but not least

first and most important

to begin with,next,then,finally

the former…the latter the first step,the second step,the

next step

2)Illustrating(giving examples)说明(举例)

for example(f.e.)                           including

for instance(i.d.)                            mainly

namely                                                 such as

3)Emphasizing强调

obviously                                    certainly

undoubtedly                                especially

surely                                         above     all

indeed                                        most      important of    all

in                                               fact most       importantly

very                                           likely

4)Paralleling并列

or            that is,that's to say           not only…but(also)

and          in other words                    both…and                     as well as

neither…nor                                      either…or

5)Adding补充

also(too)           gain                      furthermore

further                  moreover              what is more

then                      in addition             besides

as                         well(as)

6)Comparison and Contrast比较与对照

comparatives:the same…as;be similar to;and….,too;

(比较连接词)and…so…;not…and…not…,either;not

…neither…;both…and…;neither…nor…;

Just as…,so…;resemble;have…in common;

There are similarities between…and…

in the same way;equally important;

similarly

Contrastives:be…adj./adv.+ er…than;more…than…;

(对照连接词)less…than…;not so…as;Unlike…/

Contrary to…/As opposed to…;Although/

Whereas/While;contrast with/differ from/

be different from;however/on the other

hand/in contrast

7)Time时间

now                 in the past          until

soon                recently              after a while

later                 nowadays           not long after

then                 while                 in the mean time

before              since                  meanwhile

8)Space Order空间

under the table                       in the distance

on the hilltop                         across the river

in front of the room               next to the door

in the back of the room          on the front wall

on the tenth floor                   along the street

nearby                                  far away

inside the house                     outside the school

behind the cupboard               by the window

round the corner                    on the opposite side of the street

at the foot of the mountain      at the bottom of the sea

9)Cause and Effect因果

since                                            so…that…

because                                        thus

because of this/that                        hence

because of the fact that                  therefore

as a result                                     accordingly

as a result of                                 otherwise

be due to                                      be responsible for

consequently                                 cause

be a consequence of                      lead to

as a consequence of                      contribute to

be the reason for                           result in

follow from                                  bring about

result from                                   give rise to

10)Concluding总结

in conclusion                                to conclude

to sum up                                     in brief

at last                                           in short

finally

11)Qualifying转折(限定)

but                   however                  (al)though

yet                   except for                nevertheless

of course          after al                    clearly

still

34.4 Assignment for Unit 34

Directions:There are twenty blanks in the following passage.For each blank there is a transitional word or phrase missing.You should choose the appropriate word or phrase of each blank from the given words or phrases below .Be sure to use each of the given words or phrases,some of which may appear twice.

similarly,therefore,but,however,first of all,and,even,finally,for example,secondly,on the other hand,further-more,third,when,nevertheless,as aresult,or

Since we Americans are a blend of people from many countries,we have a very short history which can properly be called“American”.____,it is hard to find characteristics which apply to all Americans.We combine many extremes from many different cultures.____,we can make some generalizations.Our main characteristics include individuality,a combination of idealism and practicality,materialism,____a lack of parental influence,all of which permeate our lives.

____,we Americans value individuality.Our country was founded by strong individuals,and we do not like to be forced into conformity.Therefore,we insist on having a great deal of freedom.Interestingly enough,____,most Americans use this freedom to behave very much like most other Americans,and we are suspicious of those who do not conform.Hippies are individualists,____,but most Americans do not like them.By the same token,we consider ourselves very faithful to the laws of our country,____there are few among us who would not break one if it was felt that no harm would be done by doing so—such as by exceeding the speed limit or failing to report informally-received cash income on tax forms.

____,we Americans are both practical and idealistic.We place great value on doing things forourselves,for this is what our pioneer forefathers were forced to do.Many foreign visitors are surprised to find that many couples of comfortable means do their own yard work,their own house-work,their own repairs.____,we are very idealistic:We think we have the best political,social,and economic system yet devised,and we ____expect everything to go smoothly.

____our idealism,we are easily disillusioned.This is why so many marriages end in divorce—young couples' expectations from marriage are unrealistically high.____,it helps explain the dissatisfactions and protests of many young people,and ____older people,who enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world.

A ____characteristics of us Americans is that money is more important than prestige to us.People work extremely hard,so many,unfortunately,either have little leisure time,or do not know how to enjoy it.Why do we work so hard?It is not to achieve greater status or prestige,but simply to have more of the material objects and comfort that money can buy.

____,our parents have less influence on us than parents do in other countries.Many children are left in day-care centers by their working mothers,____with baby sitters when their parents go out at night.____,peer pressure is very great because children's feelings and desires are taken very seriously,and they are given a lot of freedom to form strong personalities.We leave home at a relatively early age,usually after high school,to take jobs and have our own apartments,____to go to college,where we are allowed a great deal of freedom.We choose our own spouses,even if our parents object,And,later in life,____our parents are old and helpless,we often live far away from them;many prefer to put them in nursing homes rather than to have the responsibility of caring for them daily.Many foreigners find this practice heartless.I suppose it is,____like many other qualities we Americans share,it is subject to change over a relatively short period of time.
发表于 2008-1-19 00:12:11 | 显示全部楼层

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多谢楼主分享
发表于 2008-1-19 09:39:10 | 显示全部楼层

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加入置顶中
发表于 2008-1-19 09:43:00 | 显示全部楼层

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嘿嘿 第一个精华   我以后会继续努力的
发表于 2008-1-19 13:36:27 | 显示全部楼层

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蛮有用的哦

谢谢
发表于 2008-1-21 15:02:05 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢LZ~~~
发表于 2008-2-2 18:24:03 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢,受益匪浅!
发表于 2008-2-13 23:48:47 | 显示全部楼层

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多谢分享
发表于 2008-2-24 16:25:26 | 显示全部楼层

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::16 ::16
发表于 2008-2-25 18:28:24 | 显示全部楼层

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真是好东东! 感谢楼主分享!
发表于 2008-2-28 12:19:51 | 显示全部楼层

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感觉内容易懂, 总结得又很透彻!

[ 本帖最后由 rene4code 于 2008-2-28 12:21 编辑 ]
发表于 2008-2-28 12:20:35 | 显示全部楼层

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太有才了,我看了一个小时都没有看完,收藏一下,以后慢满看
发表于 2008-3-31 20:56:50 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢分享    呵呵   我得慢慢看啊    不错
发表于 2008-4-4 20:30:14 | 显示全部楼层

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Very useful!
Thank you for sharing! ::16
发表于 2008-4-9 23:28:22 | 显示全部楼层

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黑糊糊后

辛苦了
发表于 2008-4-28 10:34:22 | 显示全部楼层

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thanks! thanks!
发表于 2008-5-31 21:20:50 | 显示全部楼层

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牛帖啊
发表于 2008-6-2 18:07:44 | 显示全部楼层

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::16
不错
谢谢
支持
发表于 2008-7-1 11:21:40 | 显示全部楼层

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很长,很强大
发表于 2008-7-1 15:29:47 | 显示全部楼层

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