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[V&Q讨论] GRE考试必备常识VERBAL REASONING答题技巧

qu1z   发表于 2019-1-8 15:59:59 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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  GRE考试必备常识VERBAL REASONING答题技巧    GRE考试Verbal Reasoning的题目考察的是理解文本信息、从文字信息中归纳结论、分析句子成分之间的相互关系以及辨识不同概念之间相互关系的能力。The Verbal Reasoning measure of the GRE®General Test assesses your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize information obtained from it,analyze relationships among component parts of sentences and recognize relationships among words and concepts.
+ r* _1 K" z- J4 ^2 ?) Q  前两者是考察对文字的理解,后两者考察的就是逻辑分析能力。应该说,考生在进行GRE考试备考时,首先要明确的一点就是:GRE是一个用英语考的考试,而绝非一个考英语的考试。3 C2 w$ j5 A2 R+ Z
  具体来讲,GRE General Test是一个用英语为载体考察逻辑思维能力的考试,而不是一个考察英语语言水平的考试。9 ^9 L5 i: a$ z: ^$ Z: N4 F  M
  题型介绍
& @1 s- m( N6 X: ~5 R" t; O$ G+ V9 n  Verbal Reasoning部分的题目严格来说,共有三种题型:& s: `. G. L$ v2 i
  1.Reading Comprehension, f$ R; x9 y0 q) \# a6 B; L
  2.Text Completion
* {6 w  R" [) K3 K; j  3.Sentence Equivalence: Q. U# C7 U' C! N
  下面分类别对题目进行说明
  V$ ?! v' M* \* Y' H  01Reading Comprehension, p& o. {3 c" T3 N$ p0 p$ w
  阅读理解部分的题型主要包括三种:
: V3 U  M" I& b6 I: \2 r+ `  (1)选择题(Multiple-choice,选择五个选项中唯一正确的答案)- n5 d0 p- ^' g
  (2)不定项选择题(Multiple-choice,选择三个选项中所有正确的答案)2 U) a7 ~, {9 Y7 W/ j
  (3)句子点选题(Select-in-Passage,在文章中选择符合题目要求的句子); n* O) c, X9 Q0 ]
  阅读部分考察的能力如下
- O) y6 G+ ?: y9 Y$ B  understanding the meaning of individual words and sentences
4 \; @& K: ^! m  understanding the meaning of paragraphs and larger bodies of text
# A/ ?) Y6 u/ z6 |5 z3 c) t  distinguishing between minor and major points
' ^3 U3 o5 l9 U& |  summarizing a passage/ L' [" R0 Q6 U" |
  drawing conclusions from the information provided
5 a$ Q+ X+ m* F9 x  reasoning from incomplete data to infer missing information
' |( i0 m* O4 N$ S  understanding the structure of a text in terms of how the parts relate to one another
+ ~* W# S( m! {: o. I  identifying the author's assumptions and perspective! \- j8 @  J2 e& L: Y
  analyzing a text and reaching conclusions about it1 J  f  P# u+ @( u
  identifying strengths and weaknesses of a position
  k# a4 D% q7 r6 |% M" W  developing and considering alternative explanations+ A; w1 z# B% D( `, J2 d' g4 {
  仔细分析一下不难发现,第一、第二条是最基本的语言要求,要求能够读懂文字材料;而后面的九条则对考生提出了更高的要求,不论是理解文章的机构还是辨识作者的假设与视角,都要求考生在读懂文字材料的基础上进行推理、分析,这又一次证明了GRE考试并不是一个与语言能力测试。
/ d, Q& U4 r6 ]  因此,考生在回答阅读理解部分题目的时候不能仅仅被动的阅读文字信息,而是要主动分析文章的结构、句子功能和句间关系。5 _- `* H  M# I& Z' U. L
  在阅读部分,考生一次考试遇到的文章总数约为10篇(不考虑加试的情况),文章题材会涵盖理工科(physical sciences)、生命科学(biological sciences)、社会科学(social sciences)、商科(business)、文科(arts and humanities)和日常话题(everyday topics,主要出现在逻辑单题中)。
+ C1 O$ E( Z3 h$ B2 W" b  但是,无论文章的题材如何,考生在处理阅读理解题目的时候一定要注意不要涉及任何的背景知识或者过度推理,因为ETS对做题的依据已经做了明确说明:/ N4 R* D& l0 J7 p8 Q: e  V4 y
  Do not be discouraged if you encounter unfamiliar material;all the questions can be answered on the basis of the information provided in the passage.
% @' K4 K& B# D' C$ d  所有题目都可以借助文章中提供的信息作答。/ J, r* d3 `  `/ D8 s6 [
  Answer each question on the basis of the information provided in the passage and do not rely on outside knowledge.Sometimes your own views or opinions may conflict with those presented in a passage;if this happens,take special care to work within the context provided by the passage.You should not expect to agree with everything you encounter in the reading passages.; V: e- w" l. O) a% S* h" P0 Q
  基于文章中的信息回答每一个问题,不要借助文章之外的信息作答;如考生观点与文章信息冲突,请以文章的信息为依据作答;考生不需要支持文章中任何观点。
8 G0 m6 h- H2 U, I/ z6 d  Reading Comprehension例题
& H* p6 N# ^3 S% x4 J6 D, u; X' o  Questions 1 to 3 are based on this passage.- l, H( a0 [$ }7 i3 G
  Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition,an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s,composer Philip Glass(born 1937)embraced the ethos of popular music in his compositions.Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno,but the symphonies'sound is distinctively his.Popular elements do not appear out of place in Glass's classical music,which from its early days has shared c**ain harmonies and rhythms with rock music.Yet this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular music.His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners;it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.0 u! L3 g5 c8 t, e- q1 ^$ |) W
  1.The passage addresses which of the following issues related to Glass's use of popular elements in his classical compositions?
5 v- L" H4 p% @- u  A.How it is regarded by listeners who prefer rock to the classics& |9 F4 V& F8 `7 g
  B.How it has affected the commercial success of Glass's music/ S) R5 ~. w/ }4 v
  C.Whether it has contributed to a revival of interest among other composers in using popular elements in their compositions
* x% L( v+ e) E  D.Whether it has had a detrimental effect on Glass's reputation as a composer of classical music  F7 T) D  M4 w! m
  E.Whether it has caused c**ain of Glass's works to be derivative in quality  |) x" S' w/ C0 S9 ]* Z. y
  Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply.
. S( [. |; v! l1 ~# X6 m  2.The passage suggests that Glass's work displays which of the following qualities?$ H2 B1 A) }% n7 E' i2 X0 y
  A.A return to the use of popular music in classical compositions9 Z, m0 y- O9 y7 P, n: [: ~( L; W
  B.An attempt to elevate rock music to an artistic status more closely approximating that of classical music% F; x  C: d# j; `" }$ G) e
  C.A long-standing tendency to incorporate elements from two apparently disparate musical styles
  q; Y0 t' H; G% R2 ~  3.Select the sentence that distinguishes two ways of integrating rock and classical music& W( v. Q8 U' ]
  GRE考试必备常识VERBAL REASONING答题技巧
: x' P& v* W' y/ o  Q1 s  Answer:
$ E1 ?2 R& W( e+ m3 @) e  1.E6 C6 _9 Y! ]2 Z- W4 |: o0 {: K) X
  2.AC% E* u8 Q0 x: S
  3.His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners;it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.
9 B- B8 x/ V0 r& G6 W$ I  02Text Completion
7 G# G* |1 h1 {" ~& \  填空题是中国考生比较熟悉的一种题型,因为很多中国考生的英语学习都是伴随着“完形填空”展开的。但是,需要再一次强调的是,GRE考试的Text Completion题目考察的重点依然在于逻辑分析能力上,因此考生做题的所有依据都是来自于题干给出的信息;借助文章之外的信息、或者主观的过分推理都不能作为选择答案的依据。对于这一点,官方的说明如下:
0 U# ?/ {8 N" ]6 ?4 p7 e+ x4 s) K+ u  Skilled raters do not simply absorb the information presented on the page;instead,they maintain a constant attitude of interpretation and evaluation,reasoning from what they have read so far to create a picture of the whole and revising that picture as they go.* _7 d1 J5 u# p
  考生在做题的过程中要不断对题干内容进行理解和评估,从已经阅读的信息中借助逻辑推理出完整的句意。
" \2 |9 x4 W" F' c/ y  Text Completion questions test this ability by omitting crucial words from short passages and asking the test taker to use the remaining information in the passage as a basis for selecting words or short phrases to fill the blanks and create a coherent,meaningful whole.
' P! e: j3 a( k( r% o  考生需要以题干中给出的信息为依据,选择单词或者词组作为答案,填入句子使其具体通顺、完整。3 A3 p0 a; {8 M4 n" ?' l
  根据题目中需要补充的空格数不同,我们常常把Text Completion分为三空题、两空题和单空题。) x* w5 \/ n/ J: X5 q
  Text Completion例题
! ]( @) V, P1 R) e/ [  三空题
/ w: C2 L- Z% |4 f, e+ i7 {  It is refreshing to read a book about our planet by an author who does not allow facts to be(i)__________ by politics:well aware of the political disputes about the effects of human activities on climate and biodiversity,this author does not permit them to(ii)__________ his comprehensive description of what we know about our biosphere.He emphasizes the enormous gaps in our knowledge,the sparseness of our observations,and the(iii)__________,calling attention to the many aspects of planetary evolution that must be better understood before we can accurately diagnose the condition of our planet.
8 R$ U! v- \3 k8 ]: l  Answer:AEI6 O6 {) K, _! A/ N/ a+ Y
  两空题; f  V* r' x  q
  Vain and prone to violence,Caravaggio could not handle success:the more his(i)__________ as an artist increased,the more(ii)__________ his life became.& {5 [% [# N- y# N6 O
  Answer:CD. L7 m$ r. F1 v9 ~6 ?
  单空题
! }: T" k1 c' {: ~" x  In parts of the Arctic,the land grades into the landfast ice so _______ that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.; z2 z; x) S4 |! C
  (A)permanently
4 ]- q. B' M" V$ ^  (B)imperceptibly
8 p! H6 |& q  v, Z8 ?  (C)irregularly' \# B7 t/ @& L$ {
  (D)precariously- j9 S( D8 }4 v! c. W7 ]3 [
  (E)slightly
: }, E* S* K, G+ c( O1 }% F: M  Answer:B7 Y: {* K* b3 J3 b# l/ O
  03Sentence Equivalence
: v4 b/ B8 S% g# Q+ ~/ N2 n  q6 {) ?  虽然我们常把Sentence Equivalence(句子平衡题)看作是Text Completion(填空题)的一种,但是不论是ETS官方的题型介绍还是Diagnostic Service(诊断性报告)中,都把句子平衡题作为一个**的题型。在考察重点和解题思路上,Sentence Equivalence与Text Completion还是略有差别的。句子平衡题要求考生在6个选项中选择2个填入题干的空格中,并且使句子的含义基本保持一致。这对考生从题干信息出发做出逻辑推理的能力和语言能力(准确掌握复杂的词义、正确的语法规则)都有要求。官方说明如下:, a7 w3 a- `8 f) V
  When you have selected your pair of answer choices,check to make sure that each one produces a sentence that is logically,grammatically and stylistically coherent,and that the two sentences mean the same thing.
, e+ u# ^# T' T- j  W  考生应确保选择的两个答案能够让句子在逻辑上、语法上、风格上和语义上都保持一致。9 c9 K7 z& N4 _( }. k( \- x( h6 [) S# A
  很多考生会把Sentence Equivalence看作是难度较低的一种题型,但是从实际考试的Diagnostic Service上来看,不少Sentence Equivalence题的难度值都是4或者5(最高难度),因此还是要对该类题目给予足够的重视。* e5 S6 T# \; y# o3 X( @
  GRE考试必备常识VERBAL REASONING答题技巧( A5 G2 U  a( _' B6 g4 Q
  Sentence Equivalence例题2 C  E/ d) S8 C* E4 g8 A! p- @+ N
  1.Although it does contain some pioneering ideas,one would hardly characterize the work as __________.
' U! \6 u; Z' p; D# v  A.orthodox
3 r2 y, ~+ @4 Y" e. G" g  B.eccentric
# i0 X7 p6 F; @5 f. r7 R  C.original
# F: D% R5 r# Z7 ?& {" _3 {& k- B  D.trifling
" {1 d9 I1 k& i  E.conventional9 B* E# i! r- ^6 k# \
  F.innovative
  s9 \5 J# K8 a4 k  K/ I  2.It was her view that the country's problems had been _______ by foreign technocrats,so that to ask for such assistance again would be counterproductive.
, k7 A9 s  Z/ ^  A.ameliorated, g0 O7 m$ e" y+ W% ~8 v1 L
  B.asc**ained
+ q: p6 f+ g% x8 F# H  C.diagnosed) x. n' v. s  m* ?0 ^" `
  D.exacerbated
! z  U. v& o# t5 |8 L2 }$ V8 \  E.overlooked
& ^$ a7 |& R, P. `  k! Q9 H. |" z  F.worsened
+ p* J% R; p6 K! R  Answer:8 b1 R% i) q. D3 @5 y8 z* u5 G& R
  1.CF
1 ~' _/ C4 s2 K) A5 J2 |" f  2.DF" h8 N: }1 T- `
  3Verbal Reasoning考试结构及计分规则浅析9 q: v. p; S  s& |) R- K1 o5 }' G" L+ |
  同学们对于Verbal Reasoning部分的题目类型有了较为充分的了解,但是对考试中每个Section的题目构成却很少能有一个清晰的认识,对计分规则的了解就更是少得可怜了。下面就为同学们简单介绍一下考试中Verbal Reasoning部分的考试结构和计分规则。
( ]0 c8 w& L' e, K$ n. t$ V- \  Verbal Reasoning部分的每个Section都会出现6个Text Completion题、4个Sentence Equivalence题和10个Reading Comprehension题目,共计20题。但是每个Section的题目题目构成却不尽相同。从目前我们获取的信息来看,考生的第一个记分的(非加试)Verbal Reasoning Section结构和题目顺序比较固定,分别是8 m! P  e# _- s* Y6 K8 z
  而第二个Section的题目则不尽相同,主要体现在Text Completion的三种题目与Reading Comprehension的长短文章的组合方式变化上。而Sentence Equivalence则是稳定在4个题目。以三空题为例,不同难度的第二个Section中,三空题出现的概率分布如下:" b9 g. G( h0 r; A
  因此,考生不要从题目的类型和数量上去推测第二个Section的题目难度,也不要凭借主观判断来推定自己是否进入了hard模式。从现有的信息来看,考生在考场上判断出哪一个Section是加试或者某个第二个Section的难度级别是不现实的。
/ N2 q# Z, U+ V0 I  _3 N: [, u  从Diagnostic Service的数据分析,我们大致能得到的Section 1与Section 2关系为(Section 1、Section 2皆为记分的非加试Section)2 d2 I# ?' ]: E9 E
  对于Verbal Reasoning的积分规则,目前网络上众说纷纭,但想要提醒各位考生的是:GRE的算分规则一直是考试的核心机密,官方从未公布。因此,我们可以认为,所有非官方的所谓模拟题、自动算分等说法都是噱头而已,目前不可能做到凭借正确的题目个数准确推断出考试分数。此处引用官方的说明作为依据:! `6 u: R; M3 I) g' X, g6 r
  Your scores on the Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning measures depend on your performance on the questions given.
6 `2 a9 B& G2 ~7 Y8 S7 M  考生的成绩取决于考生在所给定题目中的表现; T* V  }; M! O+ O! r# ]
  The Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning measures are section-level adaptive.This means the computer selects the second section of a measure based on your performance on the first.Within each section,all questions contribute equally to the final score.For each of the two measures,a raw score is computed.The raw score is the number of questions you answered correctly.4 l5 d/ ?: i. D( ~. r2 w
  题目是以Section为单位的自适应的。这意味着计算机依据考生第一个section的表现来选择第二个Section。在每个Section中,每个题目对最终分数的贡献是一样的(此处的最终分数,应该是指原始分,而非最终经过难度加权计算的标准分)。对于这两种推力测试,首先一个原始分会计算出来,原始分就是答对题目的个数。% _/ V0 J4 S9 v( {% }
  The raw score is then conv**ed to a scaled score through a process known as equating.The equating process accounts for minor variations in difficulty from test to test as well as differences in difficulty among individuals’tests introduced by the section-level adaptation.Thus,a given scaled score reflects the same level of performance regardless of which section was administered and when the test was taken.$ J5 L/ Q* j1 `1 t2 ^
  原始分再通过一个叫做equating的程序转化成一个标准分。这个equating的程序解释了学生由于参加不同考试和不同的第二个Section所带来的难度上的差异。因此标准分最终展现出了一个学生的能力表现。我们可以对不同难度的Section对应分数范围有大致的推断,因此建议考生在第一个Section尽量将正确的题目个数维持在14个及以上,这样基本能够保证第二个Section进入hard模式,相应的分数也能保证在一个较高的水平。
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发表于 2019-1-8 15:59:59 | 显示全部楼层

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读了一下,总体上总结的不错,不过有几个地方个人不认同:
8 u& _% {4 q& g) G1 G  p(1)在英语环境中学习了若干年,TOEFL可以不用备考,GRE仍然需要备考。因为GRE考的不是英语,不是英语基础好就能考高分的。  [) L2 O4 b/ Y4 }& _9 Z4 B( I. R
(2)Ph.D.并非一定要AW考到3.5。至少在我们专业,即使那些常春藤名校,都没有对AW有明确要求,也确实有AW不到3.5而被那些名校录取的。个人感觉这个和专业的关系更大一些。而不论申请的学校是否对AW成绩有明确要求,备考的时候我觉得至少应该把目标定在4分,奔着3.5去考最后很可能考不到3.5。
7 d+ y  Q2 a6 C. c0 p(3)GRE成绩可不是简单的用130分加上做对的题目。模考的时候可以这样来大致估计一下自己的水平,但是实际考试的时候分数的换算要复杂的多。130分不代表全错,170分也不代表全对,做对的题目数量和得分是按照一定的统计学原理来换算的。此外,根据V和Q第一个Section的做题情况,第二个Section的难度会相应的调整,而难度直接影响最后的成绩。  P/ z* H  s: C, O: d4 Q$ o" c9 e
(4)其实写作部分A不一定就比I容易。曾经G版上的一些大神分析过,中国考生AW成绩的普遍偏低和A有直接关系。A要得高分其实相当难,甚至对某些人来说可能比I还难。
2 ]- I7 B. }( C  E3 S! k" ~(5)经过一段时间的训练,很多人会发现自己写文章的打字速度实际上比看着别人的文章打要快的多,我当年备考的时候差不多能快一倍。另外上3.5并不一定需要500字。即使不到500字,别说3.5,就是5分、6分都不是没有可能,内容才是关键,特别是分析的深入程度。当然质量相同的情况下自然还是字数越多越好,特别是那些高分范文基本上都写了很多字。但是不要一味的追求字数,尤其忌讳为了增加字数而写了很多不必要的废话,如果是这样的话,还是少一点为好。
发表于 2019-1-9 07:08:14 | 显示全部楼层

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