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[备考经验] 搞定托福阅读长难句有绝招!

huahongxiao   发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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托福阅读考试中有很多长难句给各位战托宝宝带来很大的阅读障碍,一句话读完了却不知道说的什么意思。其实理清这些长难句的句子结构,就没那么难啦!今天小编就带大家来看看怎么攻破这些让人望而生畏的长难句~
实例解析1
The fact that half of the known species are thought to inhabit the world's rain forests does not seem surprising,considering the huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species.
这个句子如果乍一看,fact后面的that表示一个同位语从句的开始。
从句什么位置结束,要明白这个问题,首先要知道从句它也是一个句子,句子必须要有完整的主干结构。所以,当它的主干结构完整,后面增加的内容已经和前面的内容不能够搭配的时候,从句就结束了。
这种不搭配,有语法上不搭配和逻辑上不搭配。我们重点关注出现比较多容易辨别的语法不搭配。所谓语法不搭配,就是如果不在该处结束从句,从句写在一起就变成了病句。最常见的这样的语法不搭配就是从句主干中第二个谓语动词义群的出现。因为从句主干里只能有一个谓语,出现第二个谓语显然不对。
怎么识别谓语,当然要看动词。但是,值得注意的是英语里面有大量的非谓语动词,要排除它们。一般定义:动词原型v,动词原型的第三人称单数变化,动词的过去式,都符合谓语动词定义。动词的现在分词、过去分词、不定式不属于谓语动词定义。

再回到上面这个句子:
从句内部are符合谓语动词,thought,inhabit不属于;
当出现does not这个谓语的时候,显然从句已经有了两个谓语,这是病句,必须断句。
可以把从句用括号括起来
The fact (that half of the known species are thought to inhabit the world's rain forests) does not seem surprising,considering the huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species.
实例解析2
It was in the cities that the elements (that can be associated with modern capitalism) first appeared.
首先这是一个强调句,里面有一个定语从句。
定语从句在第二个谓语义群前结束。这里之所以用义群,义群包含了谓语动词及其修饰成分。比如这里的first就是修饰appear的。
实例解析3
It became tempting to suggest that every disease and condition (for which there had been no previous effective treatment)might be responsive to vitamin therapy.
这里for which标志从句开始,第二个谓语义群might be前从句结束。
实例解析4
(What is particularly meaningful to anthropologists) is the realization (that although the materials available to a society may to some extent limit or influence what it can do artistically, the materials by no means determines what is done).
第一个括号结束处,出现了第二个is,所以what开始的从句要结束了。
后面that开头的定语从句里面,although后面的结构都不是从句的主干,所以里面出现的谓语动词不能算作从句主干里的谓语动词,从句里面主干谓语动词是determine。
从句里面的嵌套从句的谓语动词当然也不能算作从句的谓语动词。这点要值得注意。
实例解析5
As a result,claims (that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health) have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.
首先claim是一个动词而不是名词,否则句子就没有主语了。
That引导一个同位语从句。这个从句里面的动词很多,什么时候结束这个从句呢?我们来看这个从句,eating动名词做主语,后面的consisting grown都不符合谓语动词条件,prevents第一个谓语动词,cures仿佛是第二个谓语动词,这里是不是从句结束呢?不是,因为中间有一个or连接,在语法上不构成病句。句子里是允许有多个谓语动词并列的。往后provides还是和它们并列。后面出现have become的时候才是从句结束位置。
所以补加一个小补丁,原来的规律描述变成:
从句主干中不和第一个谓语义群有并列关系的第二个谓语动词义群出现时,从句在第二个谓语动词义群前结束。本质是不能造成从句内部的语法搭配不当。
再来看看下面这些托福阅读长难句:(以下括号里的句子均为修饰成分)
1. In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet itspurpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them——evenwhile building materials have changed dramatically.
分析:(In order for the structure) (to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose), architecture employs methods of support that, (because they are based on physical laws), have changed little since people first discovered them—— (even while building materials have changed dramatically. )
参考翻译:为了使结构达到必要的大小和强度去满足它的目的,建筑学上使用了一些支撑的方法,因为这些方法都是基于物理定律,所以尽管建筑材料已经发生了巨大变化,这些方法却自人们发现它们以来就没有什么变化。
2. Fuller devised a type of dance that focused on the shifting play of lights and colors on the voluminous skirts or draperies she wore, which she kept in constant motion principally through movements of her arms, sometimes extended with wands concealed under her costumes.
分析:Fuller devised a type of dance (that focused on the shifting play of lights and colors on the voluminous skirts or draperies she wore), (which she kept in constant motion principally through movements of her arms), (sometimes extended with wands concealed under her costumes).
参考翻译:Fuller设计了一种(专注于灯光的变换和她所穿宽松的裙子或布料颜色)的舞蹈,在舞蹈中,她主要通过手臂的移动使裙子或布料保持连续的移动,有时候手臂由于隐藏在衣服下面的手杖而变长。
3. Her dancing also attracted the attention of French poets and painters of the period, for it appealed to their liking for mystery, their belief in art for art’s sake, a nineteenth-century idea that art is valuable in itself rather than because it may have some moral or educational benefit, and their efforts to synthesize form and content.
分析:Her dancing also attracted the attention (of French poets and painters) (of the period), (for it appealed to their liking for mystery, their belief in art for art’s sake, (a nineteenth-century idea that art is valuable in itself rather than because it may have some moral or educational benefit),and their efforts to synthesize form and content.)
参考翻译:她的舞蹈还吸引了当时法国一些诗人和画家的注意,因为它吸引了他们对于神秘的喜好、他们为艺术而艺术的信仰(这是一个19世纪的思想:艺术本身比它所带来的道德或教育利益更有价值)以及他们把形式和内容融合到一起所作的努力。

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