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[资料分享] 【思维的乐趣】Manufacturing inefficiency

tesolchina   发表于 2011-3-31 13:43:31 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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本帖是我的《思维的乐趣》专栏的第一篇,文章取自MIT的网站。欢迎有兴趣提高写作的同学,回帖填写英文单词和回答问题。回答时请使用完整句子、正确语法,并做到有理有据。  


MANUFACTURING INEFFICIENCY

Modern manufacturing methods are 引人注目地 inefficient in their use of energy and materials, according to a 细致的 MIT analysis of the energy use of 20 major manufacturing processes.  Overall, new manufacturing systems are anywhere from 1,000 to one million times bigger consumers of energy, per pound of output, than more traditional industries. In short, pound for pound, mak-ing microchips uses up orders of magnitude more energy than mak-ing manhole covers.乍一看, it may seem strange to make comparisons between such widely 无法比较的 processes as metal casting and chip mak-ing. But Professor Timothy Gutowski of MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, who led the analysis, explains that such a broad comparison of energy efficiency is an 必需的 first step toward optimizing these newer manufacturing methods as they gear up for ever-larger production.

1. What is the main problem raised at the beginning of the passage?
2. Through what method was the problem recognized?
3. Why does the method merit research attention?  



“The seemingly 挥霍的 use of materials and energy resources by many newer manufacturing processes is alarming and needs to be 对付 alongside claims of improved 可持续性 from products manufactured by these 方式,” Gutowksi and his colleagues say in their conclusion to the study, which was recently published in the 期刊 Environmental Science and Technology (ES&T). Gutowksi notes that manufacturers have traditionally been more 关注 about factors like price, quality, or 周期 time, and not as concerned over how much energy their manufacturing processes use. This latter issue will become more important, however, as the new industries 按比例增加 — especially if energy prices rise again or if a carbon tax is 采取, he says.
4. Why is the journal ES&T mentioned?  
5. According to the researcher, which concern deserves more attention?  Why?  

Solar panels are a good example. Their production, which uses some of the same manufacturing processes as microchips but on a large scale, is 增加 dramatically. The 内在的 inefficiency of current solar panel manufacturing methods could 严重地 reduce the technology’s lifecycle
energy balance (标点符号) that is, the ratio of the energy the panel would produce over its useful lifetime to the energy required to manufacture it.

6. Explain, in the context of solar panels, the concept of lifecycle energy balance and how the concept is relevant.  


The new study is just “the first step in doing something about it,” Gutowski says — understanding which processes are most inefficient and need further research to develop less energy-intensive 替代品. For example, many of the newer processes 涉及 vapor-phase processing (such as sputtering, in which a material is vaporized in a vacuum chamber so that it deposits a coating on an exposed surface in that chamber), which is usually much less efficient than liquid phase (such as depositing a coating from a liquid solution), but liquid processing alternatives might be 开发.

7.  What is the follow-up step that may be taken after "“the first step in doing something about it"?

The study covered everything “from soup to nuts” (从…方面来说) standard industrial methods, Gutowski says, “from heavy-duty old fashioned industries like a cast-iron foundry, all the way up to semiconductors and nanomaterials.” It includes injection molding, sputtering, carbon nanofiber production and dry etching, along with more traditional用机器制造, milling, drilling and melting. There were some boundaries on the processes studied, however: The researchers did not analyze
production of pharmaceuticals or 石油, and they only looked primarily at processes where electricity was the primary energy source.
8What is the chief criterion the researchers adopt to select the manufacturing processes for investigation?  Why?

The figures the team 取得 are actually conservative, Gutowski says, because they did not include some 显著的 energy costs such as the energy required to make the materials themselves or the energy required to 维护 the environment of the plant (such as air conditioning and filtration for clean rooms used in semi-conductor processing). “All these things would make [the energy costs] worse,” he says.


The 底线 is that “new processes are huge users of materials and energy,” he says. Because some of these processes are so new, “they will be 优化 and improved over time,” he says. But as things stand now, over the last several 十年 as traditional processes such as machining and casting have increasingly given way to newer ones for the production of semiconductors, MEMS and nano-materials and 装置, for a given 数量 of output “we have increased our energy and materials consumption by three to six orders of magnitude.”

9.What are the major causes of the increase of energy consumption in the manufacturing industries?
10. What is the insight we can learn from this study?  Discuss how this insight may be relevant to our daily life.


One message from the study is that “声称 that these technologies are going to save us in some way need closer 详细检查. There’s a significant energy cost involved here,” he says. And another is that “each of these processes could be improved,” and using the analytical tools developed by the MIT team for this study would be a useful first step in such a detailed analysis.

In addition to Gutowski, the study was done by current and former MIT mechanical engineering students Matthew Branham, Jeffrey Dahmus, Alissa Jones and Alexandre Thiriez, and Dusan Sekulic, professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Kentucky.  It was 资助 by
the National Science Foundation.

Answers to the cloze and the questions may be found here:

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[ 本帖最后由 tesolchina 于 2011-4-10 16:09 编辑 ]
发表于 2011-3-31 13:43:31 | 显示全部楼层

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** 是 m-a-k-i-n-g  
发表于 2011-3-31 15:00:23 | 显示全部楼层

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等我慢慢看了再填,先把沙发坐了再说
发表于 2011-3-31 15:23:33 | 显示全部楼层

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参考一下
发表于 2011-5-24 07:43:30 | 显示全部楼层

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回复看看 虽然不考GRE
发表于 2011-5-28 00:42:16 | 显示全部楼层

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对学习英语有很大帮助
发表于 2011-6-5 10:12:35 | 显示全部楼层

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conspicuously
detailed
In a glance
incomparable
inevitable
Modern manufacturing methods are inefficient
By comparing it with traditional industries
The approach compared two seemingly irrelevant things.
prodigal
faced
sustainability
methods
Journal
focused
periodic
proportionally increase
adopted
It publishes a study which explains the main point
how much energy their manufacturing processes use
increased
intrinsic
heavily
,
the ratio of the energy the panel would produce vs. the energy required it to manufactured it
alternatives
involve
developed
replace it with energy-efficient product
in terms of
machine-made
petro
electricity was the primary energy source
acquired
obvious
protect
bottom line
modified
decade
devices
amount
claims
scrunity
sponsored
发表于 2011-6-25 22:57:15 | 显示全部楼层

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多多练习 多看看
发表于 2011-7-18 05:06:38 | 显示全部楼层

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回复 1# tesolchina 的帖子

回复一下看看
发表于 2011-11-17 08:15:51 | 显示全部楼层

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非常感谢
发表于 2011-12-13 19:50:20 | 显示全部楼层

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果然有水平,顶一下,虽然有些我还是不了解。
发表于 2011-12-20 10:11:12 | 显示全部楼层

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re
发表于 2011-12-31 11:50:52 | 显示全部楼层

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thanks for sharing!
发表于 2012-1-2 16:24:56 | 显示全部楼层

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挺有趣的支持!
发表于 2012-1-9 20:51:10 | 显示全部楼层

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分公司改变vdsbdbd树根不动
发表于 2012-1-10 09:02:55 | 显示全部楼层

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回复看看影藏~~~~~~~~~
发表于 2012-3-10 21:33:51 | 显示全部楼层

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謝謝樓主的分享哦;)
同樣打算看看美文;P
发表于 2012-3-13 14:03:57 | 显示全部楼层

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提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
发表于 2012-3-23 13:01:05 | 显示全部楼层

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看一看好不好
发表于 2012-3-24 11:22:23 | 显示全部楼层

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Thanks for sharing
发表于 2012-5-10 19:05:18 | 显示全部楼层

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