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[H1B/H4] 留学美国实习就业教你搞定CPT/OPT

stts   发表于 2017-6-9 17:04:50 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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   对于希望留学后在美国积累一定工作经验的同学来说,我们第一步是做什么呢?进行Networking或者海投网申?这是大多数同学的第一反应,但其实我们最重要的是先弄清楚工作的前提条件——如何合法地去工作, CPT与 OPT则是其中的关键词,今天我们就来对它们进行介绍与分析,希望有需要的同学们能够对它们有所了解并且及早做准备。# `3 ^# p. W! l. |# ^1 `6 \
  CPT——在读时合法实习6 I" o& T% b" P9 Y; B
  CPT全称是Curricular Practical Training,课程实习训练,顾名思义,它是允许学生在校外合法打工的一个许可。只是它有一定的限制。根据United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS,美国公民和移民中心)的规定,它必须满足如下条件:6 v8 ~$ M2 V4 a- g: k! R/ U9 X
  这个雇佣必须是学生课程的一部分,包括:实习、Coop项目,或者其他的实习实践工作。也就是说要拿到CPT,需要学校某门课程包含实习内容,例如乔治城大学的商业分析硕士有一门 ANLY 905-Internship的课程需要进行实习
, n2 K3 ^& j, R! R. k' h/ ?5 ~  工作领域必须和学习专业相关
- L% @) \/ L8 J7 B8 }$ f  课程实习通常需在入学一学年后(九个月左右,非一周年)才能提出申请,但学生如因课业需要,必需立即参与实习,则不在此限
; w8 e! E$ E1 D" [( E  在毕业前申请,CPT 总共为12 个月,超过12 个月就会取消OPT申请资格: m( E; c$ ^: H; o4 D
  由上面的条件看来,申请OPT基本是看课程的内容安排,但如果课程不包括实习,我们又能找到符合要求的实习,这时候能否拿到CPT呢?答案是肯定的,因为CPT分为两类:
, ~5 T5 u9 a6 a  R: C$ \  必需类:即上面说的,实习是你能完成学业或者拿到学位不可缺少的一个环节,无论这个实习是否可以给你提供学分;
" [% H( p7 `; b* k  非必需类:你的学位项目并没有要求实习,但这个实习很重要并且可以转换成为学分。
; M0 k$ k# a' s! h  因此只要能够找到符合条件的工作,我们还是可以拿到CPT的,只是需要注意拿到实习offer以后要询问学校是否有CPT 对应的相关实习课程可以注册,如果没有的话我们的实习必须能够转化为学分,否则我们就违反了学生身份的相关规定。另外需要跟学校沟通清楚,一般来说学校并不鼓励进行兼职CPT,以免影响学业,所以如果希望申请兼职CPT的同学需要让学校明白这个实习对你的重要性,同时说明清楚自己的学业规划,打消学校的疑虑。
7 p  u) D' `3 ~* K( L8 n; _6 i* m  另外按时间来划分,CPT可以分为如下两类:
7 g! R0 ]/ W; X& i& E8 r9 P  兼职CPT:每周工作时间在20小时或者20小时以内,同时还是全职学生,这就被称为Part-Time CPT。在你的SEVIS I-20的工作授权上会注明兼职CPT,你必须同时保持全职学生的状态;
0 q! `" ~$ k5 R% ^  全职CPT:每周工作时间大于20小时即为全职CPT,同样,I-20上也会注明此点。学生通常都在寒暑假参与此类CPT。
, M8 t' j3 l" o8 L0 n* Y  一般来说,寒暑假会用到全职CPT,而学期内的实习则会用到兼职CPT。那么应该如何申请CPT呢?2 Y# r4 x8 K' [: |! |" w
  下面我们以University of Pennsylvania为例,来看一下步骤:- C/ Z" w: `. K: b( p' f2 v; }1 d3 H/ m
  Before applying for CPT, you should register for the CPT course if applicable.3 C) C! q1 D3 R& C$ J8 l: t
  Obtain a copy of your official offer letter on company letterhead that is signed by the prospective employer. A photocopy is acceptable. The letter should include the employer's name, full address, dates of employment, and duties.8 |% `  g9 b5 O! g9 L: t) z6 d
  The CPT electronic request form is available in iPenn at https://www.ipenn.oip.upenn.edu. After you log in with your Pennkey, you will find "CPT Request" under Student Services in the left menu.
* Y, v' k: g1 H" l& k3 l8 H  As part of your iPenn eform submission, scan and upload the following:
. t; K2 S9 f$ a$ B, r  Copy of your current I-20" q: }' ^$ D' t3 n$ j' G* T' V: E
  Copy of your passport
2 F0 _9 m+ W5 h$ y- M2 G; I# P  Copy of your I-94 card (front and back) from your most recent US entry5 s) Y* E( a1 @) |1 s( Q$ j' q
  Copy of your official offer letter as described in step 2 above
( S) @8 W" Z3 f6 z1 R3 q  F0 @" Z/ W  You must consult the appropriate school advisor to apply for CPT. Refer to the eform in iPenn to determine which advisor to consult. Your advisor may require you to meet in person.
& S+ v& r9 [; ~3 ^6 g1 {  Your CPT request will be electronically sent to your school advisor via email for review and recommendation. If your school advisor recommends your CPT request, it will be forwarded to an OIP-ISSS advisor for final approval. Without your school advisor’s recommendation, OIP-ISSS is unable to process this request.  n4 a) y2 e* z
  If you are eligible and have the documentation required for CPT, an OIP-ISSS advisor will authorize CPT by issuing an updated I-20, and you will receive an email when it is ready for pickup. OIP-ISSS processing time is 3-5 business days from receipt of your school advisor’s review/recommendation.
' c9 z2 \% K- \& E: r5 t  You may engage in CPT employment only after you have received the I-20 with your CPT authorization from OIP-ISSS. This work authorization is valid only for the specific employer, location, time period and on a part-time or full-time basis as approved and recorded by an OIP-ISSS advisor as evidenced on your I-20 issued for CPT.6 k& c" k, D0 z6 i0 @
  You must not continue employment beyond the date authorized unless you apply and are granted an extension of your permission to work from OIP-ISSS. To do so would be a violation of your nonimmigrant student status, and such violation would jeopardize your ability to remain in the US.3 J4 P+ F! c5 z& `/ W
  在上面的申请要求里面我们也提到,CPT不能使用超过12个月,否则会导致OPT被取消,那么下面让我们来看一下OPT的具体介绍。
- v$ C' O: A& {, L& g  二、 OPT——在读时或毕业后的工作许可* ?+ g& z' B* C* U& S; a
  OPT全称是Optional Practical Training, 选择性实习训练,它是就读于美国高等院校(本科或研究生)、持有F-1签证的国际学生的一种工作许可。根据United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS,美国公民和移民中心)的规定,它必须满足如下条件:; ^: Q" p& r: `8 @# D& q0 N; ^
  完成一个学年的fulltime 学习后申请(并非一周年,如Fordham的管理硕士为期九个月,但是依然可以获得OPT),另外由于OPT一般需要90天才能审批完毕,我们还需要在打算开始工作的日期前3-4个月开始申请;) h* |: i* ^: o) X; v7 i& L
  OPT期间的工作必须与专业相关,且失业时间不能超过三个月;' f1 P5 r! |" ?8 R0 p4 i  N. C
  每拿到一个更高级的新文凭后都可以申请一次OPT;
9 j* u5 j: g( f) _9 ^6 B  在毕业后申请, 时长为一年,“STEM”专业的毕业生(科学,技术,工程,数学)满足一定条件后可以申请续期24个月。0 }% c+ K9 T' \( I+ w
  由上面的条件来看,与CPT不同的是,OPT更为自由,而且并不需要找到工作即可申请(申请CPT需要有雇主证明信但OPT不用),基本上只要失业时间不超过三个月(实在没找到工作的同学可以尝试做志愿者,这也是一份工作),那么OPT期间这一年我们可以在美国自由地活动,本文由太傻留学广州商科组伍海锋老师撰稿,如需转载请标明出处。另外在OPT失效后我们有60天的grace period,只要在60天内离境,那么移民局一般不追究我们的滞留责任。
5 ^9 h' l' b2 R  C; `, i' Q  和CPT相同的是,OPT也分为两类:
& j, B4 e7 y2 o( f4 {& q  全职OPT :也就是我们经常提到传统OPT,每周工作超过20个小时;
1 ?4 n& C. C' ?+ @; q  兼职OPT:在学期期间,学生从事兼职工作,每周不超过20个小时。
/ ]3 v# E# _& c* G! @  OPT的使用分为三种情况:2 Y; |' ?& G) K$ S) X/ G" v0 A
  1.学期的OPT,如果我们在下一个新学期还要注册课程,那么在新学期前的假期(例如暑期)可以进行全职(最多可达40小时)或者兼职 OPT;
1 S1 a3 k6 j0 D8 }  2.临近毕业的OPT。修完所有和毕业要求相关的课程,但还没有完成论文,这种情况下可以进行part-time 或full-time的OPT;) R. |9 w' Q$ }. g
  3.毕业后的全职OPT,这是目前国际学生选择最多的一种类型。" Q' N5 c" g! e4 d' T. |3 q, j
  以University of Pennsylvania为例,申请的流程如下:+ S$ O2 [6 M- R) L
  Step One- }' P& j# W' S2 ^  b
  Submit the OPT I-20 electronic request form in iPenn at https://www.ipenn.oip.upenn.edu. After you log in with your Pennkey, you will find "OPT I-20 Request " under Student Services in the left menu.
/ T6 L) R6 W4 l9 M  n+ p: _  As part of your iPenn eform submission, scan and upload the following:/ N+ r4 _5 W) \8 F! f% I! f: `
  Photocopy of pages 1 and 3 of all previous and current I-20(s)
  I4 k+ p7 f4 k) e- u2 m  Photocopy of passport (photocopy of photo page, renewal page if original has expired, and pages showing amendments such as name changes, corrections etc.)5 }+ `! V8 z. E) z, |+ T! B
  Photocopy of current Form I-94 (front and back)
! _6 |& N  a1 }" F1 A  Photocopy of any previously issued employment authorization documents(OPT/EAD cards)
2 L: O1 J& P6 Y0 V6 v+ k9 k4 L  If you have been in F-1 status for less than one academic year, copies of documents indicating previous lawful status in the US permitting you to study full time
3 \% @# Q3 J1 ]$ O; E7 ~3 ?  For post-completion OPT, click here to submit $150 processing fee and attach the payment confirmation.
. e3 {* w! t  k! N  After reviewing the materials submitted in iPenn, an OIP-ISSS advisor will prepare an I-20 recommending OPT on page 3/ a! |, \5 j) v! y) |. s( E
  Step Two+ e$ O1 Y5 s1 M& ~
  Pick up the OPT I-20 at the OIP-ISSS reception desk after 3-5 business days.
: |8 A5 ~; t: B4 g! p, ]  Step Three
) u1 K) G2 @( l2 H  Mail the following items to the USCIS Service Center which has jurisdiction over the address listed on Form I-765:& o, {0 O1 p* O; w+ T, L
  Completed Form I-7655 `7 Q, p1 y) t8 e
  For pre-completion OPT, enter “c 3 A” under Item 16.
" k9 u( b7 Q7 R. G  For post-completion OPT, enter “c 3 B” under Item 16.
+ p' T* o/ J& q7 z4 W% e  Type or print legibly as USCIS uses optical character recognition (OCR) technology3 ?. I9 v5 I" h( ~& }8 {0 `' a& F  R
  Be sure to check off the purpose (“I am applying for:”) of the form  `: e# I0 Z, I, g7 ]9 a. q% j; d0 l
  Sign in blue ink
% [& i! L+ v& g' ?5 E2 d0 ^  Signature should be within the box
( P& z5 q4 v5 H2 F  I-765 Application Fee, payable to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
6 |% L. v/ ~  U# @  Photocopy of pages 1 and 3 of all previous and current I-20s, including a copy of the new OPT I-202 r. z+ e: I, O8 Z
  Photocopy of current Form I-94 (front and back)! O9 \* F" d7 X# c8 p. j
  Photocopy of passport (photocopy of photo page, renewal page if original has expired, and pages showing amendments such as name changes, corrections etc.)
* s; S# @% H9 ^0 O+ S7 W8 w0 d  Two US passport-style photos (Photograph instructions are found on the Form I-765 instructions under Required Documentation. Also, lightly print your name on the back of each photo with a pencil.)
  K0 V$ k) v) E; g  Photocopy of any previously issued employment authorization documents (EAD cards)
! B2 h( S1 S5 C6 M! S+ o& w$ i  最后需要注意的是OPT只有12个月,兼职OPT视为全职OPT的一半,也就是说如果我们在学期中进行了两个的兼职OPT,那么毕业后就只有11个月的OPT。另外CPT也有全职和兼职之分,但无论是哪一种,只要累计加起来使用满了一年,那么就失去了OPT申请资格,因此我们在申请CPT的时候需要多加注意。对于希望延长留在美国(找)工作的同学来说,申请STEM专业是最佳的选择,只要顺利毕业并拿到加入了E-Verify 系统公司的offer,那么就可以在一年OPT期满后申请延期24个月,这样在理想的情况下,我们CPT+OPT最多可以在美国工作接近四年的时间,这样无论以后是留美或是回国都是很有竞争力的一段经历。
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发表于 2017-6-9 17:04:50 | 显示全部楼层

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希望同学们早作准备,争取学业实习两不误,最大化我们的留学收获。
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发表于 2017-6-9 17:04:51 | 显示全部楼层

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