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[备考经验] 托福考试:托福阅读题型之句子简化题

huahongxiao   发表于 2019-1-2 17:18:13 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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 破解托福阅读的根本除了单词以外,便只有句子理解了。几乎除单词题外的全部题目都是以原文句子为原型,需要考生找到与之句意基本相同的“双胞胎”。句子简化题作为其鼻祖,虽然考题量少,但却担负着至关重要的作用。今天带大家来看一下句子简化题。
  所谓“简化”无非是因为被改编后的句子相比与原文而言句式更简单,词汇使用量偏少,句子偏短(当然不是绝对,相对而言)。那么,在原文理解的时候,更需要大家对于所谓的长难句进行剖析该题型之中,原句非长即难,长则为信息量大,难即为词汇句子结构不常见。两者一般只现其一,不会同时出现。
  那么在解题过程中需要分析原句的组成一个句子是由多个分句来构成的。首先各分句间的关系是怎么样搭建起来的,也就是我们常听到的逻辑关系;其次在分句内部词汇的组全关系,
  即名词与动词的搭配是否正确。直接关系到它们地起所表达的句意是否与原文一致。于是智赢国际英语托福名师把该题的做题方向归到两方面:
  句内逻辑及名动词关系
  闲话不多说,上真题:
  【Water Management in Early Agriculture】
  However, soils that have lost their vegetative cover and surface mulch will absorb much less, with almost half the water being carried away by runoff in more extreme conditions.
  A. However, soils that are unable to absorb much water experience massive runoff during heavy rains.
  B. However, where neither protective vegetation nor mulch cover the soil, much rainwater can be lost to runoff.
  C. However, on extremely steep slopes there is no vegetative cover or mulch to prevent runoff.
  D. However, in more extreme conditions water that runs off can carry away the vegetative cover and the surface mulch.
  大家看题,答案是B,都做对了吗?
  如果没有做对的话,请大家看一下大乔的过程
  第一步:分析句子主体结构
  However, 属句间关系词,不在本题考查范围内,忽略;
  soils 名词,在句子开头,基本可判定为主语;
  that 后直接加动词have lost无主语,
  即整体为前方名词soils的定语从句,结束点在surface
  will absorb less water谓语同宾语;
  with 表伴随,对主句信息进行解释;
  第二步:分析句中关键信息,及其间关系;
  主讲对象soils与rainwater
  两者之间关系:前者不可吸收后者;
  A. However, soils that are unable to absorb much water experience massive runoff during heavy rains.
  主讲对象soils 与massive runoff 与原文不一致;
  B. However, where neither protective vegetation nor mulch cover the soil, much rainwater can be lost to runoff.
  主讲对象rainwater与原文一致,细看其它信息,主句与原文主被动关系发生变化,但意义一致,都讲述soil吸收不了rainwater。
  C. However, on extremely steep slopes there is no vegetative cover or mulch to prevent runoff.
  主讲对象为vegetation与runoff之间关系,与原文不一致;
  D. However, in more extreme conditions water that runs off can carry away the vegetative cover and the surface mulch.
  主讲对象为water与vegetation之间carry away的关系,与原文不一致;
  该题型又被唤作句子改写题,确实如此,同学们就当注意原文句子与选项句子间,结构的变化 ,用词的变化。但,在这变化之中,要保持句子语音的基本一致,正如世界上没有完全相同的两片叶子,同一种语言中也没有意义完全相同的两个单词。既然连单词都没有完全相同的,更何况句子呢?于是乎,该题型题干中的表述是如此来的:
  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
  其间,需要引起我们注意的地方即:
  best expresses 与essential information
  其实题目已经说的很清楚了,
  你不要选完全一样意思的句子,因为它不存在;
  也不要觉得所有的选项都有一些信息没有讲,因为你要找的是主要信息;
  那么大家来练手一题吧:
  [Impacts and Mass Extinction]
  While the dinorsaur were the most famous victims of this mass extinction, it seems that up to 99 percent of all living things were killed and that 75 percent of all species living on Earth were wiped out at that time.
  A A large amout of Earth's living things were killed along with dinosaur.

  B. Seventy-five percent of all species, including 75 percent of dinosaru species, were victims of a mass extinction.
  C. In the extinction that eliminated dinosaur, up to 99 percent of all living things and 75 percent of all species were wiped out.
  D. Dinosaurs were the most famous victims of a mass extinction, but there have also been other mass extinctions that wiped out most of Earth's other species.
  答案 C
  你选对了吗?
  本句主句主讲对象为99 percent of all living things 与75 percent of species
  本文转载自《智赢国际英语》的新浪博客,点击阅读原文

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发表于 2019-1-2 17:18:13 | 显示全部楼层

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