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Writing-ACADEMIC ENGLISH

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loveinautumn   发表于 2006-11-1 14:59:41 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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这个是我上的写作课的教材,我为了达到复习效果的同时,练习写作和分析句子的能力,
在我复习的时候,把一些觉得重要的段落都打出来了。现在,没事发上来和大家分享。
希望对和我写作一样菜的版友有点帮助。

今天只发第一课,因为只复习了第一课

以后,我会没2天发一课,这样可以用这个帖子起到督促我复习的作用。::z5


The process of Academic Writing
Whenever you write, consider your specific audience, that is, the people who will read what you have written.

In addition, you should also consider the tone of your writing, which depends on your subject matter and on your audience. Tone is your style or manner of expression. It is revealed by your choice of words and grammatical structures and even the length of your sentences. The tone of a piece of writing can be, for example, serious, amusing, personal, or impersonal.

The purpose of a piece of writing determines the rhetorical form chosen for it.

There are four main stages in the writing process: prewriting, planning, writing, and revising drafts, and writing the final copy to hand in.

STAGE I: prewriting
It is important to note that writing is a process, not a “product.” This means that a piece of writing, whether it is a composition for your English class or a lab report for your chemistry class, is never complete; that is, it is always possible to review and revise, and review and revise again.

Step1: Choosing and Narrowing a Topic
The point is, you must narrow the subject of your paragraph to a specific focus so that you can write about it clearly and completely.

Step2: Brainstorming
This step is to generate ideas. Three useful brainstorming techniques are listing, free writing, and clustering.

Listing
Listing is a brainstorming technique in which you think about your topic and quickly make a list of whatever words or phrases come into your mind. Your purpose is to produce as many ideas as possible in a short time, and your goal is to find a specific focus for your topic.

The procedure:
1.       Write down the general topic at the top of your paper.
2.       Then make a list of every idea that comes into your mind about that topic. Keep the ideas flowing, Try to stay on the general topic; however, if you write down information that is completely off the topic, don’t worry about it because you can cross it out later.
3.       Use words, phrases, or sentences, and don’t worry about spelling or grammar.

Free writing
Free writing is a brainstorming activity in which you write freely about a topic because you are looking for a specific focus. Write down your ideas without worrying about appropriateness, grammar, spelling, logic, or organization.
The procedure
1.       Write the topic at the top of your paper
2.       Write as much as you can about the topic until you run out of ideas. Include such supporting items as facts, details and examples that come into your mind about the subject.
3.       After you have run out of ideas, reread your paper and circle the main ideas that you would like to develop.
4.       Take that main idea and free write again.

Clustering
Clustering is another brainstorming activity that you can use to generate ideas.

STAGE : Planning (outlining)
In this stage, you organize the ideas you generated by brainstorming into an outline.

Step 1: Making Sublists
The first step toward making an outline is to divide the ideas into sublists and to cross out any items that don’t belong or that aren’t useable.

Step 2: Writing the topic sentence
The topic sentence is the most general sentence in a paragraph, and it expresses the central focus of the paragraph.

Step 3: Outlining
In an outline, you write down the main points and subpoints in the order in which you plan to write about them.

STAGE : Writing and revising drafts
Remember that no piece of writing is ever perfect the first time. Each time you write a new draft, you will refine and improve your writing.

Step 1: Writing the first rough draft
Write a rough draft from your outline.
1.       Write down the topic sentence and underline it.
2.       Skip one or two lines per line of writing and leave margins of one inch on both sides of the paper. These blank spaces will add more details, information of the paper.
3.       Write your paragraph, following your outline as closely as possible.
4.       Don’t worry about grammar, punctuation, or spelling. Write down as much information as you can, following the points in your outline.
PS: While you ate writing about one major point, you might come up with an idea for another major point. Don’t risk forgetting it! Write it down in the margin of your paper near where it belongs.

Step 2: Revising content and organization
When you revise, you change what you have written in order to improve it. You need to check over unity, coherence, and logic.

During the first revision draft, do not try to correct grammar, sentence, structure, spelling, or punctuation. Just be concerned mainly with content and organization.

The procedure:
1.       Read over your paragraph carefully for a general overview. Focus on the general aspects of the paper and make notes in the margins so that you can rewrite parts that need to be improved.
2.       Check to make sure that your paragraph has a topic sentence and that the topic sentence has a central (main) focus.
3.       Cross out any sentence that does not support the topic sentence.
4.       Make sure that the topic sentence is developed with sufficient supporting details.
5.       Check your use of transition signals.
6.       Finally, does your paragraph have or need a concluding sentence? If you wrote a final comment, is it on the topic?
Step3: Proofreading the second draft
This step is to check for grammar, sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation, check over each sentence for a subject and a verb, subject-verb agreement, correct verb tense, etc, and change vocabulary words as necessary.
Step 4: writing the final copy
Now you are ready to write the final copy to hand in.


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[ 本帖最后由 loveinautumn 于 2006-11-1 15:01 编辑 ]

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发表于 2006-11-1 14:59:41 | 显示全部楼层

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好东西,我来支持你
发表于 2006-11-2 07:09:14 | 显示全部楼层

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Chapter 2: What is a paragraph?
An Overview
Introduction:
A paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. The number of sentence is unimportant; the paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly.

We will fist learn how to write good paragraphs, and then you will learn how to combine and expand paragraphs to build essays.

Paragraph Structure:
The three parts of a paragraph:a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence.

The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one or two areas that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The specific area is called the controlling idea.

Example: Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.
        TOPIC                         CONTROLLING IDEA
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations.

The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember.

A good paragraph also has the elements of unity and coherence.
Unity means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. The main idea is stated in the topic sentence, and then each and every supporting sentence develops that idea.

Coherence means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because (1) your supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and (2) your ideas are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals, such as first of all, for example, another important characteristic, and in conclusion.

The Topic Sentence
Every good paragraph has a topic sentence, which clearly states the topic and the controlling idea of the paragraph. It is the most important sentence in a paragraph and briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss.

There are three important points to remember about a topic sentence.
1.       A topic sentence is a complete sentence.
2.       A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea. It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific area to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph.
3.       A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details.

The Two Parts of a Topic Sentence
A topic sentence has two essential parts: the topic and the controlling idea. The topic names the subject, or main idea, of the paragraph. The controlling idea makes a specific comment about the topic, which indicates what the rest of the paragraph will way about the topic. It limits or controls the topic to a specific aspect of the topic to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph.

Writing Topic Sentences
Two points:
1.       A topic sentence should be neither too general nor too specific.
2.       Do not include too many unrelated ideas in your topic sentence.
      Too many ideas: San Francisco is famous for its temperate climate, its many tourist attractions, and its cosmopolitan atmosphere.
      Good:          San Francisco is famous for its cosmopolitan atmosphere.
The Concluding Sentence
It signals the end of the paragraph and a reminder of the important points.
End -of –Paragraph Signals
THESE ARE FOLLOWED BY A COMMA
THESE ARE NOT FOLLOWED BY A COMMA
Finally,               As a result,
In conclusion,          Indeed,
In summary,           In brief,
Therefore,             In short,
Thus,                 
We can see that…
It is clear that…
These examples show that…
There can be no doubt that…
The evidence suggests that…

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发表于 2006-11-2 16:36:11 | 显示全部楼层

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Chapter 3 Unity and Outlining
Unity

Unity means that only one main idea is discussed. It is a good idea for beginning academic writers to discuss only one advantage in each paragraph.

The second part of unity is that every supporting sentence must directly explain or prove the main idea that is stated in the topic sentence. For example, if you are writing a paragraph about the high cost of college tuition, you could mention inflation as a factor. However, if you write several sentences about inflation, you are getting off the topic, and your paragraph will not have unity.

Paragraph Outlining

Like an architect, you should plan a paragraph before you write it to make sure that all of your ideas will fit.

Learning to outline will improve your writing for three reasons. First of all, it will help you organize your ideas. Second, learning to outline will help you write more quickly. Preparing an outline is 75 percent of the work. Finally, your grammar will improve because you will be able to concentrate on it, not on your thoughts or organization.

The “Parallel Form” Rule

Equal parts of an outline should be written in parallel form. This means that all ideas with the same kind of letter or number should have the same grammatical form; that is, they all should be complete sentences, or all nouns, or all adjectives, etc.

The Equivalent Value Rule: Outlines with Details

In an outline, ideas that have the same kind of letter or number must have equal value. This is the “equivalent value” rule. This means that main supporting points all should have the same kind of letter or number. Details should have a different kind of letter or number.

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发表于 2006-11-5 03:33:46 | 显示全部楼层

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Chapter 4 Coherence
The movement from one sentence to the next (and in longer essays, from one paragraph to the next) must be logical and smooth.

There are four ways to achieve coherence. The first two ways involve repeating key nouns and using pronouns that refer back to key nouns. The third way is to use transition signals to show how one idea is related to the next. The fourth way to achieve coherence is to arrange your sentences in logical order. You will practice the first three ways to achieve coherence in this chapter, and you will learn about logical order as well.

Repetition of key nouns

The easiest way to achieve coherence is to repeat key nouns frequently in your paragraph.

Use of Consistent Pronouns

When you use pronouns instead of key nouns, make sure that you use the same person and number throughout your paragraph.

Transition Signals

Transition signals are words such as first, second, next, finally, therefore, and however.

Think of transition signals as traffic signs that tell your reader when to go forward, turn, slow down, and stop and using them as a guide makes it easier for your reader to follow your ideas. Transition words give your paragraph coherence.

Types of Transition Signals


The three groups are sentence connectors (including transition phrases and conjunctive adverbs), clause connectors (including coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions), and a mixed group called others.
Conjunctive adverbs are also often used with a semicolon and comma to join two independent clauses to form a compound sentence.









Meaning/
Function
Sentence Connectors
Clause Connectors
Others
Transition phrases
Conjunctive
Adverbs
Coordinating
conjunctions
Subordinating
Conjunctions
To introduce an additional idea
In addition
Furthermore
Moreover
Besides
Also
too
And

Another(+noun)
An additional(+noun)
To introduce an opposite idea
On the other hand
In contrast
However
Nevertheless
Instead
Still
nonetheless
But
Yet

Although
Though
Even though
Whereas
while
In spite of (+ noun)
Despite (+ noun)
To introduce a choice or alternative

otherwise
or
If
Unless

To introduce a restatement or explanation
In fact
Indeed
That is  



To introduce an example
For example
For instance



An example of (+noun)
Such as (+noun)
To introduce a conclusion or summary
In conclusion
In summary
In brief
In short
indeed




To introduce a result
Accordingly
As d result
As a consequence
Therefore
Consequently
Hence
thus
So



Sentence connectors

Transition Phrases
The phrases in this group appear at the beginning of sentences, in the middle (normally following the subject) or at the end of sentences. They are always separated from the rest of the sentences by commas.

Conjunctive Adverbs
Conjunctive adverbs (except too) may also appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of sentences, and are separated by commas.

Conjunctive adverbs are also often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses to form a compound sentence.

Clause Connector
Coordinating Conjunctions
The five coordinating conjunctions in the chart (plus two additional ones, for and nor) are used with a comma to join two independent clauses to form a compound sentence.

Yet and but have similar meanings: they both signal that an opposite idea is coming. Yet is preferred when the second clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the first clause. When the two clauses are direct opposites, but is preferred.

Subordinating Conjunctions

These words (and many others including because, when, and so that) introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. There are two possible positions for the dependent clause.

If the dependent clause comes before the independent clause, use a comma after it.

If the independent clause comes first, do not use a comma.

Yet is similar in meaning to nevertheless, and but is similar to however.


Logical Order

Your choice of one kind of logical order over another will, of course, depend on your topic and on your purpose. You may even combine two or more different logical orders in the same paragraph. The important point to remember is to arrange your ideas in some kind of order that is logical to a reader accustomed to the English way of writing.

Some common kinds of logical order in English are chronological order, logical division of ideas, and comparison (similarities)/contrast (differences).
发表于 2006-11-11 16:40:47 | 显示全部楼层

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Chapter5

Chapter5 Kinds of Logical Order
Chronological Order

Chronological order is a way of organizing the ideas in a paragraph in the order of their occurrence in time.

One of the primary ways you might use for historical narratives; it is also used in business, science, and engineering to explain processes and procedures.

There are two keys to writing a good chronological paragraph.
1.       Discuss the events (in a narrative) or the steps (in a process) in the order in which they occur.
2.       Use chronological transition signals to indicate the sequence of events or steps.

Transition Signals for Chronological Order

Transition signals are especially important in a chronological paragraph. You have to be very clear about the sequence of events

TRANSITION WORDS AND PHRASES
SUBORDINATIORS
OTHERS
First,   first of all,    soon
Second,  after all,  gradually
Next,   finally,   meanwhile
then
After            since
As              until
As soon as        when
Before           while
The first step
In the second step
On the third day
During the night

Logical Division of Ideas/Order of Importance

Logical division is one of the most common ways to organize ideas in English.

Transition signals for Logical Division of Ideas
SENTENCE CONNECTORS
OTHERS
First, second, third, etc
Next, last, finally
In addition, moreover
Furthermore          also
The first (+noun)
The/a second (+noun)
One (+noun)
An additional (+noun)   another (+noun)

Transition Signals for Order of Importance
SENTENCE CONNECTORS
OTHERS
More importantly   
Most significantly
Above all
primarily
A more important (+noun)
The most important (+noun)
The second most significant (+noun)
The primary (+noun)


The topic sentence of logical division and order of importance paragraphs often indicates the number of groups the topic is divided into.
Two Topic Sentence Tips

1.       Use a colon in front of the names of the groups.
2.       Use paired (correlative) conjunctions when there are only two groups. Paired conjunctions are both…and…; not only…but also…; either…or…; neither…nor…
Comparison/Contrast

Comparison---similarities
Contrast-------difference
As with the other kinds of paragraphs, the keys to writing a comparison/contrast paragraph are to put the ideas in some kind of order and to use appropriate transition signals.

Transition Signals for Comparison/Contrast

COMPARISON TRANSITION SIGANALS
SENTENCE CONNECTORS
CONJUNCTIONS
OTHERS
Similarly    likewise   
Also     too
And    both…and
Not only…but also
As        just as
Like       just like
Alike      as…as
(be)similar  similar to
The same (as)
Compare to/with
CONTRAST TRANSITION SIGNALS
SENTENCE CONNECTORS
CONJUNCTIONS
OTHERS
However
On the other hand
On the contrary
In contrast
In (by) comparison
but   yet   
although
though
even though
while  whereas
Unlike
Differ from
(be) dissimilar
Compare to
compare with
发表于 2006-11-27 06:20:05 | 显示全部楼层

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沙发
发表于 2006-11-27 15:34:02 | 显示全部楼层

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感谢 好人啊
发表于 2006-11-29 11:48:55 | 显示全部楼层

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很好,学习学习
发表于 2008-2-2 10:26:22 | 显示全部楼层

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哪里有这本书的下载?

顺便问问,哪里有这本书的下载?谢谢
发表于 2008-2-2 10:28:11 | 显示全部楼层

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好东西,支持下~感谢LZ
发表于 2010-1-25 23:26:50 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢……收下了。
发表于 2010-7-13 01:12:12 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢lz啦
发表于 2010-7-27 11:11:56 | 显示全部楼层

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对即将面临的adademic writing十分忐忑啊……
发表于 2010-7-31 18:10:52 | 显示全部楼层

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赞!

谢谢分享啊!
这种方式促进学习真是太好了!
惠人利己!
发表于 2010-8-20 09:04:57 | 显示全部楼层

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顶顶顶
发表于 2010-8-23 08:08:51 | 显示全部楼层

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好东西 太好了 谢谢分享
发表于 2011-1-23 22:48:45 | 显示全部楼层

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赞赞赞
发表于 2017-1-15 22:31:33 | 显示全部楼层

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