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[资料分享] Punctuation Rules(发现在美国学习英语,这些基本知识老美还是挺看重的)

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tracy24   发表于 2007-4-30 04:48:52 | 显示全部楼层 | 阅读模式 | 跳转到指定楼层
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关于标点符号,大小写,数字的书写,我想大部分的人都认为自己没有问题。真认为写英文的时候,标点符号都用对了吗?请按照下面的RULES核对一下吧。
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目录:

1楼 Commas  
2.    Quotation Marks
3.    Parentheses
4.    Capitalization
5.    Rules for Writing Numbers

6.    Semicolons




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1. Commas:



Rule 1To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of three or more.
ExampleMy $10,000,000 estate is to be split among my husband, daughter, son, and nephew.
NOTEOmitting the comma after son would indicate that the son and nephew would have to split one-third of the estate.


Rule 2 Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the word and can be inserted between them.
ExamplesHe is a strong, healthy man.
We stayed at an expensive summer resort.
You would not say expensive and summer resort, so no comma.


Rule 3 Use a comma when an ly adjective is used with other adjectives.
NOTETo test if an ly word is an adjective, see if it can be used alone with the noun. If it can, use the comma.
ExamplesFelix was a lonely, young boy.
I get headaches in brightly lit rooms.
Brightly is not an adjective because it cannot be used alone with rooms; therefore, no comma is used between brightly and lit.


Rule 4 Use commas before or surrounding the name or title of a person directly addressed.
ExamplesWill you, Aisha, do that assignment for me?
Yes, Doctor, I will.
NOTECapitalize a title when directly addressing someone.


Rule 5a Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year and after the year.
ExampleKathleen met her husband on December 5, 2003, in Mill Valley, California.


Rule 5b If any part of the date is omitted, leave out the comma.
ExampleThey met in December 2003 in Mill Valley.


Rule 6 Use a comma to separate the city from the state and after the state. Some businesses no longer use the comma after the state.
ExampleI lived in San Francisco, California, for 20 years.
OR
I lived in San Francisco, California for 20 years.


Rule 7 Use commas to surround degrees or titles used with names.
ExampleAl Mooney, M.D., knew Sam Sunny, Jr.
NOTESometimes people having names with Jr. attached do not use a comma before the Jr. If they do not use the comma, then you should not.


Rule 8 Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt the flow of the sentence.
ExampleI am, as you have probably noticed, very nervous
about this.


Rule 9 When starting a sentence with a weak clause, use a comma after it. Conversely, do not use a comma when the sentence starts with a strong clause followed by a weak clause.
ExamplesIf you are not sure about this, let me know now.
Let me know now if you are not sure about this.

Rule 11 If something or someone is sufficiently identified, the description following it is considered nonessential and should be surrounded by commas.
ExamplesFreddy, who has a limp, was in an auto accident.
Freddy is named so the description is not essential.
The boy who has a limp was in an auto accident.
We do not know which boy is being referred to without
further description; therefore, no commas are used.


Rule 12 Use a comma to separate two strong clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction-and, or, but, for, nor. You can omit the comma if the clauses are both short.
ExamplesI have painted the entire house, but he is still
working on sanding the doors.
I paint and he writes.


Rule 13 Use the comma to separate two sentences if it will help avoid confusion.
ExampleI chose the colors red and green, and blue
was his first choice.


Rule 14 A comma splice is an error caused by joining two strong clauses with only a comma instead of separating the clauses with a conjunction, a semicolon, or a period. A comma splice creates what is
known as a run-on sentence.
IncorrectTime flies when we are having fun, we are
always having fun.

(Comma splice)
CorrectTime flies when we are having fun and we
are always having fun.
Time flies when we are having fun; we
are always having fun.
Time flies when we are having fun. We
are always having fun.


Rule 15 If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb,
do not use a comma.
ExampleHe thought quickly when asked that difficult question but still did not answer correctly.


Rule 16 Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations shorter than three lines.
ExamplesHe actually said, "I do not care."
"Why," I asked, "do you always forget to do it?"


Rule 17 Use a comma to separate a statement from a question.
ExampleI can go, can't I?


Rule 18 Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence.
ExampleThat is my money, not yours.


Rule 19 Use a comma when beginning sentences with introductory words such as well, now, or yes.
ExamplesYes, I do need that report.
Well, I never thought I'd live to see the day . . .


Rule 20 Use commas surrounding words such as therefore and however when they are used as interruptors.
Examples I would, therefore, like a response.
I would be happy, however, to volunteer for the Red Cross.


Rule 21 Use either a comma or a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they are followed by a series of items. The comma after the introductory word is optional.
ExamplesYou may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.
You may be required to bring many items; e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.
You may be required to bring many items, e.g. sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.
NOTE:i.e. means that is
e.g. means for example


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:22 编辑 ]

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发表于 2007-4-30 04:48:52 | 显示全部楼层

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2. Quotation Marks

Rule 1Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks, even inside single quotes.
ExamplesThe sign changed from "Walk," to "Don't Walk," to "Walk" again within 30 seconds.
She said, "Hurry up."
She said, "He said, 'Hurry up.'"


Rule 2 The placement of question marks with quotes follows logic. If a question is in quotation marks, the question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks.
ExamplesShe asked, "Will you still be my friend?"
Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"?
Here the question is outside the quote.
NOTEOnly one ending punctuation mark is used with quotation marks. Also, the stronger punctuation mark wins. Therefore, no period after war is used.

Rule 3 When you have a question outside quoted material AND inside quoted material, use only one question mark and place it inside the
quotation mark.
ExampleDid she say, "May I go?"

Rule 4 Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Note that the period goes inside all quote marks.
ExampleHe said, "Danea said, 'Do not treat me that way.'"

Rule 5 Use quotation marks to set off a direct quotation only.
Examples"When will you be here?" he asked.
He asked when you will be there.

Rule 6 Do not use quotation marks with quoted material that is more than three lines in length. Introduce the quotation with a colon and leave a blank line above and below the quoted material. Single space the quoted material. Some style manuals say to indent one-half inch on both the left and right margins; others say to indent only on the left margin. Quotation marks are not used.

Rule 7 When you are quoting something that has a spelling or grammar mistake or presents material in a confusing way, insert the term sic in italics and enclose it in brackets. Sic means, "This is the way the original
material was."
ExampleShe wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister has on."
Should be than, not then.


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:05 编辑 ]

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3. Parentheses

Rule 1Use parentheses to enclose words or figures that clarify or are used
as an aside.
ExamplesI expect five hundred dollars ($500).
He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand the question.
Commas could have been used in the above example. Parentheses show less emphasis or importance.
Em dashes, which could also have been used instead of parentheses, show emphasis.


Rule 2 You may use half parentheses to enclose numbers of listed items in a sentence.
ExampleWe need an emergency room physician who can 1) think quickly, 2) treat patients respectfully, and 3) handle complaints from the public.


Rule 3 Periods go inside parentheses only if an entire sentence is inside the parentheses.
ExamplesPlease read the analysis (I enclosed it as Attachment A.).
OR
Please read the analysis. (I enclosed it as Attachment A.)
OR
Please read the analysis (Attachment A).


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:05 编辑 ]
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4. Capitalization

Rule 1Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
ExamplesHe said, "Treat her as you would your own daughter."
"Look out!" she screamed. "You almost ran into my child."


Rule 2 Capitalize a proper noun.
ExampleGolden Gate Bridge


Rule 3 Capitalize a person's title when it precedes the name. Do not capitalize when the title is acting as a description following the name.
ExamplesChairperson Petrov
Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address us at noon.


Rule 4 Capitalize when the person's title follows the name on the address or signature line.
ExamplesSincerely,
Ms. Haines, Chairperson


Rule 5 Capitalize the titles of high-ranking government officials when used with or before their names. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the name.
ExamplesThe president will address Congress.
All senators are expected to attend.
The governors and lieutenant governors called for a special task force.
Governor Fortinbrass, Lieutenant Governor Poppins, Attorney General Dalloway, and Senators James and Twain will attend.


Rule 6 Capitalize any title when used as a direct address.
ExampleWill you take my temperature, Doctor?


Rule 7 Capitalize points of the compass only when they refer to specific regions.
ExamplesWe have had three relatives visit from the South.
Go south three blocks and then turn left.
We live in the southeast section of town.
Southeast is just an adjective here describing section, so it should not be capitalized.


Rule 8 Always capitalize the first and last words of titles of publications regardless of their parts of speech. Always capitalize other words within titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are, and Be.
Exception: Do not capitalize little words within titles such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor, or prepositions, regardless of their length.
ExamplesThe Day of the Jackal
What Color Is Your Parachute?
A Tale of Two Cities


Rule 9 Capitalize federal or state when used as part of an official agency name or in government documents where these terms represent an official name. If they are being used as general terms, you may use lower-case letters.
ExamplesThe state has evidence to the contrary.
That is a federal offense.
The State Board of Equalization collects sales taxes.
We will visit three states during our summer vacation.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been subject to much scrutiny and criticism lately.
Her business must comply with all county, state, and federal laws.


Rule 10You may capitalize words such as department, bureau, and office if you have prepared your text in the following way:
ExampleThe Bureau of Land Management (Bureau) has some jurisdiction over Indian lands. The Bureau is finding its administrative role to be challenging.


Rule 11Do not capitalize names of seasons.
ExampleI love autumn colors and spring flowers.


Rule 12Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary close.
ExamplesDear Ms. Mohamed:
My dear Mr. Sanchez:
Very truly yours,


Rule 13 Capitalize words derived from proper nouns.
Example I must take English and math.
English is capitalized because it comes from the proper noun England but math does not come from mathland.


Rule 14 Capitalize the names of specific course titles.
ExampleI must take history and Algebra 2.


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:09 编辑 ]
发表于 2007-4-30 04:52:17 | 显示全部楼层

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5.Rules for Writing Numbers

Rule 1The numbers one through nine should be spelled out; use figures for numbers 10 and above.
Examples I want five copies.
I want 10 copies.


Rule 2With a group of related numbers in a sentence, where one number is 10 or above, write the numbers all in figures. Use words if all related numbers are below 10.
Correct I asked for 5 pencils, not 50.
Incorrect I asked for five pencils, not 50.
Correct My 10 cats fought with their 2 cats.
My nine cats fought with their two cats.


Rule 3If the numbers are unrelated, then you may use both figures and words. Again, one through nine should be spelled out.
Examples I asked for 30 pencils for my five employees.
My nine cavities are exceeded in number by my 14 teeth.
I have 10 toes but only one nose.


Rule 4Always spell out simple fractions and use hyphens with them.
Examples One-half of the pies have been eaten.
A two-thirds majority is required for that bill to pass in Congress.


Rule 5A mixed fraction can be expressed in figures unless it is the first word of a sentence.
Examples We expect a 5 1/2 percent wage increase.
Five and one-half percent was the maximum allowable interest.


Rule 6The simplest way to express large numbers is best. Be careful to be consistent within a sentence.
Correct You can earn from one million to five million dollars.
Incorrect You can earn from one million to $5,000,000.
Correct You can earn from $500 to $5,000,000.
Incorrect You can earn from $500 to $5 million.
Correct You can earn from five hundred to five million dollars.
Incorrect You can earn from $500 to five million dollars.


Rule 7Write decimals in figures. Put a zero in front of a decimal unless the decimal itself begins with a zero.
Examples The plant grew 0.79 of a foot in one year.
The plant grew only .07 of a foot this year because of the drought.


Rule 8 When writing out large numbers of five or more digits before the decimal point, use a comma where the comma would appear in the figure format. Use the word and only where the decimal point appears in the figure format.
Examples $15,768.13 (Fifteen thousand, seven hundred sixty-eight dollars and thirteen cents)
$1054.21 (One thousand fifty-four dollars and twenty-one cents)

NOTE: The comma is now commonly omitted in four-digit whole numbers.


Rule 9The following examples apply when using dates:
Examples The meeting is scheduled for June 30.
The meeting is scheduled for the 30th of June.
We have had tricks played on us on April 1.
The 1st of April puts some people on edge.


Rule 10When expressing decades, you may spell them out and lowercase them.
Example During the eighties and nineties, the United States economy grew.


Rule 11If you wish to express decades using incomplete numerals, put an apostrophe before the incomplete numeral but not between the year and the s.
Correct During the '80s and '90s, the United States economy grew.
Incorrect During the '80's and '90's, the United States economy grew.


Rule 12You may also express decades in complete numerals. Again, don't use an apostrophe between the year and the s.
Example During the 1980s and 1990s, the United States economy grew.


Rule 13Normally, spell out the time of day in text even with half and quarter hours. With o'clock, the number is always spelled out.
ExamplesShe gets up at four thirty before the baby wakes up.
The baby wakes up at five o'clock in the morning.


Rule 14Use numerals with the time of day when exact times are being emphasized.
ExamplesMonib's flight leaves at 6:22 a.m.
Please arrive by 12:30 p.m. sharp.


Rule 15Use noon and midnight rather than 12:00 a.m. or 12:00 p.m.


Rule 16Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
ExamplesForty-three people were injured in the train wreck.
Twenty-three of them were hospitalized.


Rule 17Write out a number if it begins a sentence.
ExampleTwenty-nine people won an award for helping their communities.
That 29 people won an award for helping their communities was fantastic!


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:11 编辑 ]
发表于 2007-4-30 04:52:54 | 显示全部楼层

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6. Semicolons

Rule 1Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out.
ExamplesCall me tomorrow; I will give you my answer then.
I have paid my dues; therefore, I expect all the privileges listed in the contract.


Rule 2 It is preferable to use a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, however, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after the introductory word.
ExamplesYou will want to bring many backpacking items; for example, sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing will make the trip better.
As we discussed, you will bring two items; i.e., a sleeping bag and a tent are not optional.


Rule 3 Use the semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas.
ExampleThis conference has people that have come from Boise, Idaho; Los Angeles, California; and Nashville, Tennessee.


Rule 4 Use the semicolon between two sentences that are joined by a conjunction but already have one or more commas within the first sentence.
ExamplesWhen I finish here, I will be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep.
If she can, she will attempt that feat; and if her husband is able, he will be there to see her.


[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-4-30 05:13 编辑 ]
发表于 2007-4-30 04:53:51 | 显示全部楼层

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thank you for sharing
发表于 2007-5-8 16:51:23 | 显示全部楼层

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斑竹总结的好详细阿,我要好好学习一下!
发表于 2007-5-8 21:08:42 | 显示全部楼层

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up up up
发表于 2007-5-11 09:49:57 | 显示全部楼层

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原帖由 jiutouniao1983 于 2007-5-8 21:08 发表
斑竹总结的好详细阿,我要好好学习一下!


是她总结的?

[ 本帖最后由 tracy24 于 2007-5-19 21:33 编辑 ]
发表于 2007-5-17 09:04:47 | 显示全部楼层

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看来基础知识还是很重要的,细节往往会决定一个人的成败

感谢lz分享!!
发表于 2007-8-20 19:34:23 | 显示全部楼层

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强贴留名~顶顶
发表于 2007-9-19 10:31:32 | 显示全部楼层

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谢谢TRACY分享
发表于 2007-9-20 14:14:09 | 显示全部楼层

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good one, thank you so much, save it~
发表于 2007-9-27 11:05:29 | 显示全部楼层

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挥泪谢谢楼主分享,好人有好报
发表于 2007-11-6 09:12:49 | 显示全部楼层

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perfect job. thanks
发表于 2007-11-8 00:57:40 | 显示全部楼层

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感谢tracy分享~~~~~~
发表于 2007-11-15 11:53:17 | 显示全部楼层

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好东西啊。谢谢。。。。
发表于 2007-11-19 16:47:05 | 显示全部楼层

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  thank you.
楼主好人啊
发表于 2007-11-19 18:12:24 | 显示全部楼层

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非常好,今天刚上了这么一节课,发现挺重要的
发表于 2007-11-28 18:34:28 | 显示全部楼层

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